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Current World Literature

Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care: January 2012 - Volume 15 - Issue 1 - p 92-96
doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e32834ef501
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This bibliography is compiled by clinicians from the journals listed at the end of this publication. It is based on literature entered into our database between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2011 (articles are generally added to the database about two and a half months after publication). In addition, the bibliography contains every paper annotated by reviewers; these references were obtained from a variety of bibliographic databases and published between the beginning of the review period and the time of going to press. The bibliography has been grouped into topics that relate to the reviews in this issue.

▪ Papers considered by the reviewers to be of special interest

▪▪ Papers considered by the reviewers to be of outstanding interest

The number in square brackets following a selected paper, e.g. [7], refers to its number in the annotated references of the corresponding review.

Ageing: biology and nutrition

Polypharmacy and nutritional status in elderly people

Review: (pp. 1–6)

▪▪. Ahn SN, Sharkey JR, Smith ML, et al. Variations in body mass index among older Americans: the roles of social and lifestyle factors. J Aging Health 2011; 23:347–366. [48]

Beer C, Hyde Z, Almeida OP, Norman P, et al. Quality use of medicines and health outcomes among a cohort of community dwelling older men: an observational study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2011; 71:592–599.

Bostrom AM, Van Soest D, Kolewaski B, Milke DL, et al. Nutrition Status Among Residents Living in a Veterans' Long-Term Care Facility in Western Canada: A Pilot Study. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2011; 12:217–225.

Bouillanne O, Hay P, Liabaud B, Duche C, et al. Evidence that albumin is not a suitable marker of body composition-related nutritional status in elderly patients. Nutrition 2011; 27:165–169.

Burgaz A, Byberg L, Rautiainen S, Orsini N, et al. Confirmed hypertension and plasma 25(OH)D concentrations amongst elderly men. J Intern Med 2011; 269:211–218.

Candrilli SD, Kuznik A, Mendys PM, Wilson DJ. Prevalence and Coexistence of Cardiovascular Comorbidities Among the US Dyslipidemic Population Aged ≥ 65 Years by Lipid-Lowering Medication Use Status. Postgrad Med 2010; 122:142–149.

Chondrogianni N, Kapeta S, Chinou I, Vassilatou K, et al. Anti-ageing and rejuvenating effects of quercetin. Exp Gerontol 2010; 45:763–771.

Corsonello A, Garasto S, Abbatecola AM, Rose G, et al. Targeting inflammation to slow or delay functional decline: where are we? Biogerontology 2010; 11:603–614.

de Groot CPGM, van Staveren WA. Nutritional concerns, health and survival in old age. Biogerontology 2010; 11:597–602.

Dillon EL, Durham WJ, Urban RJ, Sheffield-Moore M. Hormone treatment and muscle anabolism during aging: Androgens [Review]. Clin Nutr 2010; 29:697–700.

Evans WJ. Drug discovery and development for ageing: opportunities and challenges [Review]. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci 2011; 366:113–119, 2011 Jan 12.

▪▪. Fabian E, Bogner M, Kickinger A, et al. Intake of medication and vitamin status in the elderly. Ann Nutr Metab 2011; 58:118–125. [02]

Ferry M, Roussel AM. Micronutrient status and cognitive decline in ageing. Eur Geriatr Med 2011; 2:15–21.

Garfinkel D, Mangin D. Feasibility Study of a Systematic Approach for Discontinuation of Multiple Medications in Older Adults Addressing Polypharmacy. Arch Intern Med 2010; 170:1648–1654.

Gellad WF, Grenard JL, Marcum ZA. A Systematic Review of Barriers to Medication Adherence in the Elderly: Looking Beyond Cost and Regimen Complexity [Review]. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2011; 9:11–23.

Hausman DB, Fischer JG, Johnson MA. Nutrition in centenarians [Review]. Maturitas 2011; 68:203–209.

▪▪. Heuberger RA, Caudell K. Polypharmacy and nutritional status in older adults. A cross-sectional study. Drugs Aging 2011; 28:315–323. [03]

Heuberger RA, Caudell K. Polypharmacy and Nutritional Status in Older Adults A Cross-Sectional Study. Drugs Aging 2011; 28:315–323.

▪▪. Jyrkkä J, Enlund H, Lavikainen P, et al. Association of polypharmacy with nutritional status, functional ability and cognitive capacity over a three-year period in an elderly population. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2011; 20:514–522. [04]

Jyrkka J, Enlund H, Lavikainen P, Sulkava R, et al. Association of polypharmacy with nutritional status, functional ability and cognitive capacity over a three-year period in an elderly population. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2011; 20:514–522.

Leischker AH, Kolb GF, Felschen-Ludwig S. Nutritional status, chewing function and vitamin deficiency in geriatric inpatients. Eur Geriatr Med 2010; 1:207–212.

Linton A, Bacon TA, Trice S, Devine J, et al. Results from a Mailed Promotion of Medication Reviews Among Department of Defense Beneficiaries Receiving 10 or More Chronic Medications [Review]. J Manag Care Pharm 2010; 16:578–592.

Nimitphong H, Holick MF. Vitamin D, neurocognitive functioning and immunocompetence. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2011; 14:7–14.

Norman K, Stobaus N, Gonzalez MC, Schulzke JD, et al. Hand grip strength: Outcome predictor and marker of nutritional status [Review]. Clin Nutr 2011; 30:135–142.

Robinson JG, Booth B. Statin use and lipid levels in older adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001 to 2006. J Clin Lipidol 2010; 4:483–490.

▪. Schilp J, Winjhoven HAH, Deeg DJH, Visser M. Early determinants for the development of undernutrition in an older general population: Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Br J Nutr 2011; 106:708–717. [40]

Steinman MA, Lund BC, Miao YH, Boscardin WJ, et al. Geriatric Conditions, Medication Use, and Risk of Adverse Drug Events in a Predominantly Male, Older Veteran Population. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011; 59:615–621.

Tarwadi KV, Agte VV. Interrelationships between nutritional status, socioeconomic factors, and lifestyle in Indian cataract patients. Nutrition 2011; 27:40–45.

Toffanello ED, Inelmen EM, Minicuci N, Campigotto F, et al. Ten-year trends in vitamin intake in free-living healthy elderly people: The risk of subclinical malnutrition. J Nutr Health Aging 2011; 15.

Wong CY, Chaudhry SI, Desai MM, Krumholz HM. Trends in Comorbidity, Disability, and Polypharmacy in Heart Failure. Am J Med 2011; 124:136–143.

Zaharoni H, Rimon E, Vardi H, Friger M, et al. Probiotics improve bowel movements in hospitalized elderly patients - The proage study. J Nutr Health Aging 2011; 15.

Bedrest and sarcopenia

Review: (pp. 7–11)

Brooks NE, Cadena SM, Vannier E, Cloutier G, et al. effects of resistance exercise combined with essential amino acid supplementation and energy deficit on markers of skeletal muscle atrophy and regeneration during bed rest and active recovery. Muscle Nerve 2010; 42:927–935.

▪. Cereda E, Pedrolli C, Zagami A, et al. Body mass index and mortality in institutionalized elderly. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2011; 12:174–178. [22]

Cescon C, Gazzoni M. Short term bed-rest reduces conduction velocity of individual motor units in leg muscles. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2010; 20:860–867.

▪▪. Ferrando AA, Paddon-Jones D, Hays NP, et al. EAA supplementation to increase nitrogen intake improves muscle function during bedrest in the elderly. Clin Nutr 2010; 29:18–23. [28]

Iizaka S, Sanada H, Nakagami G, Sekine R, et al. Estimation of protein loss from wound fluid in older patients with severe pressure ulcers. Nutrition 2010; 26:890–895.

Kozakova M, Malshi E, Morizzo C, Pedri S, et al. Impact of prolonged cardiac unloading on left ventricular mass and longitudinal myocardial performance: an experimental bed rest study in humans. J Hypertension 2011; 29:137–143.

▪. Landi F, Liperoti R, Fusco D, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia among nursing home older residents. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2011 [Epub ahead of print]. [19]

Miokovic T, Armbrecht G, Felsenberg D, Belavy DL. Differential atrophy of the postero-lateral hip musculature during prolonged bedrest and the influence of exercise countermeasures. J Appl Physiol 2011; 110:926–934.

▪. Muir J, Judex S, Qin YX, Rubin C. Postural stability caused by extended bedrest is alleviated by brief daily exposure to low magnitude mechanical signals. Gait Posture 2011; 33:435–529. [33]

Muir J, Judex S, Qin YX, Rubin C. Postural instability caused by extended bed rest is alleviated by brief daily exposure to low magnitude mechanical signals. Gait Posture 2011; 33:429–435.

Mulder ER, Horstman AM, Gerrits K, Massa M, et al. Enhanced physiological tremor deteriorates plantar flexor torque steadiness after bed rest. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2011; 21:384–393.

Roef M, Vogel WV. The effects of muscle exercise and bed rest on [F-18]methylcholine PET/CT. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2011; 38:526–530.

▪. Van dewoude MF, Cederholm T, Cruz-Jentoft AJ. on behalf of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, Relevant outcomes in intervention trials for sarcopenia. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011; 59:1566–1567. [06]

Chronic low-grade inflammation and age-related sarcopenia

Review: (pp. 12–22)

▪▪. Aleman H, Esparza J, Ramirez FA, et al. Longitudinal evidence on the association between interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein with the loss of total appendicular skeletal muscle in free-living older men and women. Age Ageing 2011; 40:469–475. [10]

▪. Bautmans I, Onyema O, Van Puyvelde K, et al. Grip work estimation during sustained maximal contraction: validity and relationship with physical dependency and inflammation in elderly persons. J Nutr Health Aging 2011; 15:731–736. [11]

▪. Beavers KM, Serra MC, Beavers DP, et al. Soy and the exercise-induced inflammatory response in postmenopausal women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2010; 35:261–269. [36]

▪▪. Buford TW, Cooke MB, Manini TM, et al. Effects of age and sedentary lifestyle on skeletal muscle NF-kappaB signaling in men. J Gerontol 2010; 65:532–537. [17]

▪. Córdova C, Lopes Jr ESF, Pires AS, et al. Long-term resistance training is associated with reduced circulating levels of IL-6, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha in elderly women. Neuroimmunomodulation 2011; 18:165–170. [37]

Evans WJ, Paolisso G, Abbatecola AM, Corsonello A, et al. Frailty and muscle metabolism dysregulation in the elderly. Biogerontology 2010; 11:527–536.

▪. Ferreira FC, de Medeiros AI, Nicioli C, et al. Circuit resistance training in sedentary women: body composition and serum cytokine levels. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2010; 35:163–171. [38]

▪. Haren MT, Malmstrom TK, Miller DK, et al. Higher C-reactive protein and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor levels are associated with poor physical function and disability: a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of late middle-aged African Americans. J Gerontol 2010; 65:274–281. [12]

▪▪. Kawaguchi T, Shiba N, Takano Y, et al. Hybrid training of voluntary and electrical muscle contractions decreased fasting blood glucose and serum interleukin-6 levels in elderly people: a pilot study. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2011; 36:276–283. [39]

▪. Leng SX, Tian X, Matteini A, et al. IL-6-independent association of elevated serum neopterin levels with prevalent frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Age Ageing 2011; 40:475–481. [13]

▪. Levinger I, Howlett KF, Peake J, et al. Akt, AS160, metabolic risk factors and aerobic fitness in middle-aged women. Exerc Immunol Rev 2010; 16:98–104. [18]

Mangerich A, Herbach N, Hanf B, Fischbach A, et al. Inflammatory and age-related pathologies in mice with ectopic expression of human PARP-1. Mech Ageing Dev 2010; 131:389–404.

▪▪. Martins RA, Neves AP, Coelho-Silva MJ, et al. The effect of aerobic versus strength-based training on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in older adults. Eur J Appl Physiol 2010; 110:161–169. [33]

Mosoni L, Balage M, Vazeille E, Combaret L, et al. Antioxidant supplementation had positive effects in old rat muscle, but through better oxidative status in other organs. Nutrition 2010; 26:1157–1162.

▪. Ogawa K, Sanada K, Machida S, et al. Resistance exercise training-induced muscle hypertrophy was associated with reduction of inflammatory markers in elderly women. Mediat Inflamm 2010; 2010:171023. [40]

▪. Onambélé-Pearson G, Breen L, Stewart C. Influence of exercise intensity in older persons with unchanged habitual nutritional intake: skeletal muscle and endocrine adaptations. Age 2010; 32:139–153. [34]

Perlstein TS, Pande R, Berliner N, Vanasse GJ. Prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in subgroups of elderly persons with anemia: association with anemia of inflammation. Blood 2011; 117:2800–2806.

▪. Phillips MD, Flynn MG, McFarlin BK, et al. Resistance training at eight-repetition maximum reduces the inflammatory milieu in elderly women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010; 42:314–325. [41]

▪▪. Safdar A, Hamadeh MJ, Kaczor JJ, et al. Aberrant mitochondrial homeostasis in the skeletal muscle of sedentary older adults. PLoS One 2010; 5:e10778. [19]

▪▪. Santos ML, Gomes WF, Pereira DS, et al. Muscle strength, muscle balance, physical function and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2011; 52:322–326. [14]

▪. Thalacker-Mercer AE, Dell'Italia LJ, Cui X, et al. Differential genomic responses in old vs. young humans despite similar levels of modest muscle damage after resistance loading. Physiol Genomics 2010; 40:141–149. [15]

▪. Thompson D, Markovitch D, Betts JA, et al. Time course of changes in inflammatory markers during a 6-mo exercise intervention in sedentary middle-aged men: a randomized-controlled trial. J Appl Physiol 2010; 108:769–779. [35]

▪. Tiainen K, Hurme M, Hervonen A, et al. Inflammatory markers and physical performance among nonagenarians. J Gerontol 2010; 65:658–663. [16]

Toth MJ, Le Winter MM, Ades PA, Matthews DE. Impaired muscle protein anabolic response to insulin and amino acids in heart failure patients: relationship with markers of immune activation. Clin Sci (Colch) 2010; 119:467–476.

Visser M. Symposium 2: Exercise and protein nutrition Obesity, sarcopenia and their functional consequences in old age. Proc Nutr Soc 2011; 70:114–118.

Visvanathan R, Chapman I. Preventing sarcopaenia in older people [Review]. Maturitas 2010; 66:383–388.

Walrand S. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate: Could it be a new therapeutic option for sarcopenia? J Nutr Health Aging 2010; 14.

Phytochemicals suppress nuclear factor-κB signaling: impact on health span and the aging process

Review: (pp. 23–28)

▪▪. Baker RG, Hayden MS, Ghosh S. NF-κB, inflammation, and metabolic disease. Cell Metab 2011; 13:11–22. [19]

Bava SV, Sreekanth CN, Thulasidasan AKT, Anto NP, et al. Akt is upstream and MAPKs are downstream of NF-kappa B in paclitaxel-induced survival signaling events, which are down-regulated by curcumin contributing to their synergism. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2011; 43:331–341.

Becatti M, Prignano F, Fiorillo C, Pescitelli L, et al. The Involvement of Smac/DIABLO, p53, NF-kB, and MAPK Pathways in Apoptosis of Keratinocytes from Perilesional Vitiligo Skin: Protective Effects of Curcumin and Capsaicin. Antioxid Redox Signal 2010; 13:1309–1321.

▪▪. Brigelius-Flohe R, Flohe L. Basic principles and emerging concepts in the redox control of transcription factors. Antioxid Redox Signal 2011; 15:2335–2381. [20]

▪. Freund A, Orjalo AV, Desprez PY, Campisi J. Inflammatory networks during cellular senescence: causes and consequences. Trends Mol Med 2010; 16:238–246. [15]

▪▪. Gupta SC, Sundaram C, Reuter S, Aggarwal BB. Inhibiting NF-κB activation by small molecules as a therapeutic strategy. Biochim Biophys Acta 2010:775–787. [31]

▪. Hayden MS, Ghosh S. NF-κB in immunobiology. Cell Res 2011; 21:223–244. [08]

Kaileh M, Sen R. Role of NF-kappa B in the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Tocotrienols [Review]. J Am Coll Nutr 2010; 29:334S–339S.

Koop A, Lepenies I, Braum O, Davarnia P, et al. Novel splice variants of human IKK epsilon negatively regulate IKK epsilon-induced IRF3 and NF-kB activation. Eur J Immunol 2011; 41:224–234.

Lou JR, Zhang XX, Zheng J, Ding WQ. Transient Metals Enhance Cytotoxicity of Curcumin: Potential Involvement of the NF-kB and mTOR Signaling Pathways. Anticancer Res 2010; 30:3249–3255.

▪▪. Ungvari Z, Kaley G, de Gabo R, et al. Mechanisms of vascular aging: new perspectives. J Geront A Biol Sci Med Sci 2010; 65:1028–1041. [06]

▪. Varela L, Vazquez MJ, Cordido F, et al. Ghrelin and lipid metabolism: key partners in energy balance. J Mol Endocrinol 2011; 46:R43–R63. [26]

Mini Nutritional Assessment

Review: (pp. 29–41)

▪. Cereda E, Pedrolli C, Zagami A, et al. Nutritional screening and mortality in newly institutionalized elderly: a comparison between the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index and the Mini Nutritional Assessment. Clin Nutr (in press). [125]

▪. Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, et al. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing 2010; 39:412–423. [03]

▪. Ferdous T, Cederholm T, Kabir ZN, et al. Nutritional status and cognitive function in community-living rural Bangladeshi older adults: data from the poverty and health in ageing project. J Am Geriatr Soc 2010; 58:919–924. [57]

Gao Q, Niti M, Feng L, Yap KB, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements and cognitive decline: singapore longitudinal aging studies. J Nutr Health Aging 2011; 15.

▪▪. Genton L, Karsegard VL, Chevalley T, et al. Body composition changes over 9 years in healthy elderly subjects and impact of physical activity. Clin Nutr 2011; 30:436–442. [04]

▪. Gioulbasanis I, Georgoulias P, Vlachostergios PJ, et al. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and biochemical markers of cachexia in metastatic lung cancer patients: interrelations and associations with prognosis. Lung Cancer (in press). [27]

Hamer M, McNaughton SA, Bates CJ, Mishra GD. Dietary patterns, assessed from a weighed food record, and survival among elderly participants from the United Kingdom. Eur J Clin Nutr 2010; 64:853–861.

Huang YC, Lee MS, Pan WH, Wahlqvist ML. Validation of a simplified food frequency questionnaire as used in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) for the elderly. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2011; 20:134–140.

▪▪. Kaiser MJ, Bauer JM, Rämsch C, et al. Mini Nutritional Assessment International Group. Frequency of malnutrition in older adults: a multinational perspective using the mini nutritional assessment. J Am Geriatr Soc 2010; 58:1734–1738. [16]

▪▪. Kaiser R, Winning K, Uter W, et al. Comparison of two different approaches for the application of the mini nutritional assessment in nursing homes: resident interviews versus assessment by nursing staff. J Nutr Health Aging 2009; 13:863–869. [87]

Katsarou A, Tyrovolas S, Psaltopoulou T, Zeimbekis A, et al. Socio-economic status, place of residence and dietary habits among the elderly: the Mediterranean islands study. Public Health Nutr 2010; 13:1614–1621.

Kearney PM, Cronin H, O'Regan C, Kamiya Y, et al. Comparison of centre and home-based health assessments: early experience from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Age Ageing 2011; 40:85–90.

Massoulard A, Bonnabau H, Gindre-Poulvelarie L, Baptistev A, et al. Analysis of the food consumption of 87 elderly nursing home residents, depending on food texture. J Nutr Health Aging 2011; 15.

▪. Muscaritoli M, Anker SD, Argilés J, et al. Consensus definition of sarcopenia, cachexia and precachexia: joint document elaborated by Special Interest Groups (SIG) ‘cachexia-anorexia in chronic wasting diseases' and ‘nutrition in geriatrics’. Clin Nutr 2010; 29:154–159. [02]

▪. No Authors Given. Task Force on Nutrition and Ageing of the IAGG and the IANA. Nutritional assessment of residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs): recommendations of the task force on nutrition and ageing of the IAGG European region and the IANA. J Nutr Health Aging 2009; 13:475–483. [124]

Paxton AE, Strycker LA, Toobert DJ, Ammerman AS, et al. Starting The Conversation Performance of a Brief Dietary Assessment and Intervention Tool for Health Professionals. Am J Prev Med 2011; 40:67–71.

Presse N, Payette H, Shatenstein B, Greenwood CE, et al. A Minimum of Six Days of Diet Recording Is Needed to Assess Usual Vitamin K Intake among Older Adults. J Nutr 2011; 141:341–346.

Sarma S, Gheorghiade M. Nutritional assessment and support of the patient with acute heart failure [Review]. Curr Opin Crit Care 2010; 16:413–418.

▪▪. Soini H, Suominen MH, Muurinen S, et al. Malnutrition according to the mini nutritional assessment in older adults in different settings. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011; 59:765–766. [17]

Tsai AC, Chang TL, Wang YC, Liao CY. Population-Specific Short-Form Mini Nutritional Assessment with Body Mass Index or Calf Circumference Can Predict Risk of Malnutrition in Community-Living or Institutionalized Elderly People in Taiwan. J Am Diet Assoc 2010; 110:1328–1334.

▪. Vedantam A, Subramanian V, Rao NV, John KR. Malnutrition in free-living elderly in rural south India: prevalence and risk factors. Public Health Nutr 2010; 13:1328–1332. [68]

Zarbin MA, Rosenfeld PJ. Pathway-based therapies for age-related macular degeneration An Integrated Survey of Emerging Treatment Alternatives [Review]. Retin-J Retin Vitr Dis 2010; 30:1350–1367, 2010 Oct.

Fruit and vegetable intake in older hospitalized patients

Review: (pp. 42–46)

Feldblum I, German L, Castel H, Harman-Boehm I, et al. Individualized Nutritional Intervention During and After Hospitalization: The Nutrition Intervention Study Clinical Trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011; 59:10–17.

▪. Henríquez Sánchez P, Ruano C, de Irala J, et al. Adherence to the mediterranean diet and quality of life in the SUN project. Eur J Clin Nutr 146. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2011. [Epub ahead of print] [25]

▪▪. Norman K, Pirlich M, Smoliner C, et al. Cost-effectiveness of a 3-month intervention with oral nutritional supplements in disease-related malnutrition: a randomised controlled pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2011; 65:735–742. [30]

Roll S, Nocon M, Willich SN. Reduction of common cold symptoms by encapsulated juice powder concentrate of fruits and vegetables: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr 2011; 105:118–122.

Protein, amino acid metabolism and therapy

Cysteine and obesity: consistency of the evidence across epidemiologic, animal and cellular studies

Review: (pp. 49–57)

▪▪. Aasheim ET, Elshorbagy A, Diep LM, et al. Effect of bariatric surgery on sulfur amino acids and glutamate. Br J Nutr 2011. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511000201. [13]

▪. Bearden SE, Beard Jr RS, Pfau JC. Extracellular transsulfuration generates hydrogen sulfide from homocysteine and protects endothelium from redox stress. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2010; 299:H1568–H1576. [91]

▪. Dhawan SS, Eshtehardi P, McDaniel MC, et al. The role of plasma aminothiols in the prediction of coronary microvascular dysfunction and plaque vulnerability. Atherosclerosis 2011 (in press). DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclero sis.2011.05.020. [20]

▪. Elshorbagy AK, Church C, Valdivia-Garcia M, et al. Dietary cystine level affects metabolic rate and glycaemic control in adult mice. J Nutr Biochem 2011. doi: S0955-2863 (0911)00038-00036 [pii] 00010.01016/j.jnutbio.02010. 00012.00009. [55]

▪▪. Elshorbagy AK, Nurk E, Gjesdal CG, et al. Homocysteine, cysteine, and body composition in the Hordaland Homocysteine Study: does cysteine link amino acid and lipid metabolism? Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88:738–746. [06]

▪. Elshorbagy AK, Valdivia-Garcia M, Mattocks DA, et al. Cysteine supplementation reverses methionine restriction effects on rat adiposity: significance of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase. J Lipid Res 2011; 52:104–112. [54]

Elshorbagy AK, Valdivia-Garcia M, Mattocks DAL, Plummer JD, et al. Cysteine supplementation reverses methionine restriction effects on rat adiposity: significance of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase. J Lipid Res 2011; 52:104–112.

Gruber HE, Buchanan L, Ingram JA, Zinchenko N, et al. The relationship between pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and human intervertebral disc degeneration. Histol Histopathol 2010; 25:1431–1436.

Guillet C, Masgrau A, Boirie Y. Is protein metabolism changed with obesity? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2011; 14:89–92.

Ishii I, Akahoshi N, Yamada H, Nakano S, et al. Cystathionine gamma-Lyase-deficient Mice Require Dietary Cysteine to Protect against Acute Lethal Myopathy and Oxidative Injury. J Biol Chem 2010; 285:26358–26368.

Katsanos CS, Mandarino LJ. Protein Metabolism in Human Obesity: A Shift in Focus From Whole-Body to Skeletal Muscle [Review]. Obesity 2011; 19:469–475.

▪. Mani S, Yang G, Wang R. A critical life-supporting role for cystathionine gamma-lyase in the absence of dietary cysteine supply. Free Radic Biol Med 2011; 50:1280–1287. [43]

▪. Park Y, Ziegler TR, Gletsu-Miller N, et al. Postprandial cysteine/cystine redox potential in human plasma varies with meal content of sulfur amino acids. J Nutr 2010; 140:760–765. [61]

Remond D, Buffiere C, Pouyet C, Papet I, et al. Cysteine fluxes across the portal-drained viscera of enterally fed minipigs: effect of an acute intestinal inflammation. Amino Acids 2011; 40:543–552.

Siakkou E, Wilbanks SM, Jameson GNL. Simplified cysteine dioxygenase activity assay allows simultaneous quantitation of both substrate and product. Anal Biochem 2010; 405:127–131.

Sickmann HM, Waagepetersen HS, Schousboe A, Benie AJ, et al. Obesity and type 2 diabetes in rats are associated with altered brain glycogen and amino-acid homeostasis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2010; 30:1527–1537.

Stipanuk MH, Ueki I. Dealing with methionine/homocysteine sulfur: cysteine metabolism to taurine and inorganic sulfur. J Inherit Metab Dis 2011; 34:17–32.

▪. Vigilanza P, Aquilano K, Baldelli S, et al. Modulation of intracellular glutathione affects adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. J Cell Physiol 2011; 226:2016–2024. [28]

Regulation of muscle protein synthesis in humans

Review: (pp. 58–63)

▪▪. Atherton PJ, Etheridge T, Watt PW, et al. Muscle full effect after oral protein: time-dependent concordance and discordance between human muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signalling. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92:1080–1088. [01]

Atherton PJ, Etheridge T, Watt PW, Wilkinson D, et al. Muscle full effect after oral protein time-dependent concordance and discordance between human muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92:1080–1088.

▪. Bickel CS, Cross JM, Bamman MM. Exercise dosing to retain resistance training adaptations in young and older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011; 43:1177–1187. [32]

Brosnan JT, da Silva RP, Brosnan ME. The metabolic burden of creatine synthesis. Amino Acids 2011; 40:1325–1331.

▪▪. Burd NA, West DW, Moore DR, et al. Enhanced amino acid sensitivity of myofibrillar protein synthesis persists for up to 24 h after resistance exercise in young men. J Nutr 2011; 141:568–573. [19]

▪. Burd NA, West DW, Staples AW, et al. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men. PLoS One 2010; 5:e12033. [16]

Chen YW, Ye JW, Cao LZ, Zhang Y, et al. Myostatin regulates glucose metabolism via the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway in skeletal muscle cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2010; 42:2072–2081.

▪. Chevalier S, Goulet ED, Burgos SA, et al. Protein anabolic responses to a fed steady state in healthy aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2011; 66:681–688. [27]

▪▪. Davidsen PK, Gallagher IJ, Hartman JW, et al. High responders to resistance exercise training demonstrate differential regulation of skeletal muscle microRNA expression. J Appl Physiol 2011; 110:309–317. [20]

▪▪. Deutz NE, Safar A, Schutzler S, et al. Muscle protein synthesis in cancer patients can be stimulated with a specially formulated medical food. Clin Nutr 2011. [Epub ahead of print] [39]

▪▪. Dickinson JM, Fry CS, Drummond MJ, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activation is required for the stimulation of human skeletal muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids. J Nutr 2011; 141:856–862. [05]

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Dickinson JM, Rasmussen BB. Essential amino acid sensing, signaling, and transport in the regulation of human muscle protein metabolism. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2011; 14:83–88.

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Karagounis LG, Hawley JA. Skeletal muscle: Increasing the size of the locomotor cell. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2010; 42:1376–1379.

Kobayashi T, Akiyama Y, Akiyama N, Katoh H, et al. Irbesartan enhances GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport in skeletal muscle cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2010; 649:23–28.

Lamers Y, Coats B, Ralat M, Quinlivan EP, et al. Moderate Vitamin B-6 Restriction Does Not Alter Postprandial Methionine Cycle Rates of Rernethylation, Transmethylation, and Total Transsulfuration but Increases the Fractional Synthesis Rate of Cystathionine in Healthy Young Men and Women. J Nutr 2011; 141:835–842.

Long YC, Cheng ZY, Copps KD, White MF. Insulin Receptor Substrates Irs1 and Irs2 Coordinate Skeletal Muscle Growth and Metabolism via the Akt and AMPK Pathways. Mol Cell Biol 2011; 31:430–441.

Marimuthu K, Murton AJ, Greenhaff PL. Mechanisms regulating muscle mass during disuse atrophy and rehabilitation in humans [Review]. J Appl Physiol 2011; 110:555–560.

Markofski MM, Volpi E. Protein metabolism in women and men: similarities and disparities. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2011; 14:93–97.

▪. Mayhew DL, Hornberger TA, Lincoln HC, Bamman MM. Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B{epsilon}. (eIF2B{epsilon}) induces cap-dependent translation and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. J Physiol 2011; 589:3023–3037. [21]

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Peng ZL, Qiao W, Wang ZS, Dai QZ, et al. Chromium Improves Protein Deposition Through Regulating the mRNA Levels of IGF-1, IGF-1R, and Ub in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cells. Biol Trace Elem Res 2010; 137:226–234.

▪. Pennings B, Boirie Y, Senden JM, et al. Whey protein stimulates postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older men. Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 93:997–1005. [28]

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Smith GI, Patterson BW, Mittendorfer B. Human muscle protein turnover-why is it so variable? J Appl Physiol 2011; 110:480–491.

▪▪. Staples AW, Burd NA, West DW, et al. Carbohydrate does not augment exercise-induced protein accretion versus protein alone. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011; 43:1154–1161. [04]

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▪. Symons TB, Sheffield-Moore M, Mamerow MM, et al. The anabolic response to resistance exercise and a protein-rich meal is not diminished by age. J Nutr Health Aging 2011; 15:376–381. [34]

Timmerman KL, Lee JL, Dreyer HC, Dhanani S, et al. Insulin Stimulates Human Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis via an Indirect Mechanism Involving Endothelial-Dependent Vasodilation and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Signaling. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010; 95:3848–3857.

▪. Toth MJ, Le Winter MM, Ades PA, Matthews DE. Impaired muscle protein anabolic response to insulin and amino acids in heart failure patients: relationship with markers of immune activation. Clin Sci (Lond) 2010; 119:467–476. [40]

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van Wessel T, de Haan A, van der Laarse WJ, Jaspers RT. The muscle fiber type-fiber size paradox: hypertrophy or oxidative metabolism? [Review]. Eur J Appl Physiol 2010; 110:665–694.

Wang HL, Liu DJ, Cao PR, Lecker S, et al. Atrogin-1 Affects Muscle Protein Synthesis and Degradation When Energy Metabolism Is Impaired by the Antidiabetes Drug Berberine. Diabetes 2010; 59:1879–1889.

▪. West DW, Burd NA, Coffey VG, et al. Rapid aminoacidemia enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis and anabolic intramuscular signalling responses after resistance exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 94:795–803. [29]

▪▪. West DW, Burd NA, Tang JE, et al. Elevations in ostensibly anabolic hormones with resistance exercise enhance neither training-induced muscle hypertrophy nor strength of the elbow flexors. J Appl Physiol 2010; 108:60–67. [10]

▪▪. West DW, Kujbida GW, Moore DR, et al. Resistance exercise-induced increases in putative anabolic hormones do not enhance muscle protein synthesis or intracellular signalling in young men. J Physiol 2009; 587:5239–5247. [09]

West DWD, Burd NA, Staples AW, Phillips SM. Human exercise-mediated skeletal muscle hypertrophy is an intrinsic process. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2010; 42:1371–1375.

Xi PB, Jiang ZY, Zheng CT, Lin YC, et al. Regulation of protein metabolism by glutamine: implications for nutrition and health. Front Biosci 2011:578–597.

Arginases and arginine deficiency syndromes

Review: (pp. 64–70)

▪▪. Davis JS, Anstey NM. Is plasma arginine concentration decreased in patients with sepsis? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 2011; 39:380–385. [22]

Davis JS, Anstey NM. Is plasma arginine concentration decreased in patients with sepsis? A systematic review and meta-analysis [Review]. Crit Care Med 2011; 39:380–385.

▪. Erdely A, Kepka-Lenhart D, Salmen-Muniz R, et al. Arginase activities and global arginine bioavailability in wild-type and ApoE-deficient mice: responses to high fat and high cholesterol diets. PLoS One 2010; 5:e15253. [32]

Geng MM, Li TJ, Kong XF, Song XY, et al. Reduced expression of intestinal N-acetylglutamate synthase in suckling piglets: a novel molecular mechanism for arginine as a nutritionally essential amino acid for neonates. Amino Acids 2011; 40:1513–1522.

▪▪. Gough MS, Morgan MA, Mack CM, et al. The ratio of arginine to dimethylarginines is reduced and predicts outcomes in patients with severe sepsis. Crit Care Med 2011; 39:1351–1358. [34]

Highfill SL, Rodriguez PC, Zhou Q, Goetz CA, et al. Bone marrow myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) inhibit graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) via an arginase-1-dependent mechanism that is up-regulated by interleukin-13. Blood 2010; 116:5738–5747.

Hsiao CC, Lee CH, Tsao LY, Lo HC. Dose Effects of Chronically Infused Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor N-G-Nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester on Anabolic Response and Arginine Metabolism in Rats with Subacute Peritonitis. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2011; 34:177–182.

▪▪. Marion V, Sankaranarayanan S, de Theije C, et al. Arginine deficiency causes runting in the suckling period by selectively activating the stress kinase GCN2. J Biol Chem 2011; 286:8866–8874. [49]

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Ohnaka M, Okuda-Ashitaka E, Kaneko S, Ando A, et al. Induction of Arginase II mRNA by Nitric Oxide Using an In Vitro Model of Gyrate Atrophy of Choroid and Retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011; 52:1493–1500.

▪. Rodriguez PC, Hernandez CP, Morrow K, et al. L-arginine deprivation regulates cyclin D3 mRNA stability in human T cells by controlling HuR expression. J Immunol 2010; 185:5198–5204. [39]

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▪▪. Zhu X, Herrera G, Ochoa JB. Immunosupression and infection after major surgery: a nutritional deficiency. Crit Care Clin 2010; 26:491–500. [43]

Leucine as a pharmaconutrient in health and disease

Review: (pp. 71–77)

Apro W, Blomstrand E. Influence of supplementation with branched-chain amino acids in combination with resistance exercise on p70S6 kinase phosphorylation in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol 2010; 200:237–248.

Beelen M, Burke LM, Gibala MJ, van Loon LJC. Nutritional Strategies to Promote Postexercise Recovery [Review]. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2010; 20:515–532.

Beis L, Mohammad Y, Easton C, Pitsiladis YP. Failure of Glycine-Arginine-alpha-Ketoisocaproic Acid to Improve High-Intensity Exercise Performance in Trained Cyclists. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2011; 21:33–39.

Burd NA, West DWD, Moore DR, Atherton PJ, et al. Enhanced Amino Acid Sensitivity of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Persists for up to 24 h after Resistance Exercise in Young Men. J Nutr 2011; 141:568–573.

de Almeida RD, Prado ES, Llosa CD, Magalhaes-Neto A, et al. Acute supplementation with keto analogues and amino acids in rats during resistance exercise. Br J Nutr 2010; 104:1438–1442.

Gasier HG, Riechman SE, Wiggs MP, Buentello A, et al. Cumulative responses of muscle protein synthesis are augmented with chronic resistance exercise training. Acta Physiol 2011; 201:381–389.

Glover EI, Phillips SM. Resistance exercise and appropriate nutrition to counteract muscle wasting and promote muscle hypertrophy. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2010; 13:630–634.

Glynn EL, Fry CS, Drummond MJ, Dreyer HC, et al. Muscle protein breakdown has a minor role in the protein anabolic response to essential amino acid and carbohydrate intake following resistance exercise. Am J Physiol-Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2010; 299:R533–R540.

Glynn EL, Fry CS, Drummond MJ, Timmerman KL, et al. Excess Leucine Intake Enhances Muscle Anabolic Signaling but Not Net Protein Anabolism in Young Men and Women. J Nutr 2010; 140:1970–1976.

Harber MP, Konopka AR, Jemiolo B, Trappe SW, et al. Muscle protein synthesis and gene expression during recovery from aerobic exercise in the fasted and fed states. Am J Physiol-Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2010; 299:R1254–R1262.

Hsu MC, Chien KY, Hsu CC, Chung CJ, et al. Effects of BCAA, Arginine and Carbohydrate Combined Drink on Post-Exercise Biochemical Response and Psychological Condition. Chin J Physiol 2011; 54:71–78.

▪. Leenders M, Verdijk LB, van der Hoeven L, et al. Prolonged leucine supplementation does not augment muscle mass or affect glycemic control in elderly type 2 diabetic men. J Nutr 2011; 141:1070–1076. [46]

Moore DR, Atherton PJ, Rennie MJ, Tarnopolsky MA, et al. Resistance exercise enhances mTOR and MAPK signalling in human muscle over that seen at rest after bolus protein ingestion. Acta Physiol 2011; 201:365–372.

▪. Moore DR, Robinson MJ, Fry JL, et al. Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89:161–168. [41]

Murakami T, Hasegawa K, Yoshinaga M. Rapid induction of REDD1 expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2011; 405:615–619.

Murphy C, Miller BF. Protein consumption following aerobic exercise increases whole-body protein turnover in older adults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2010; 35.

Nicastro H, Artioli GG, Costa AD, Solis MY, et al. An overview of the therapeutic effects of leucine supplementation on skeletal muscle under atrophic conditions [Review]. Amino Acids 2011; 40:287–300.

Pasiakos SM, McClung HL, McClung JP, Urso ML, et al. Molecular Responses to Moderate Endurance Exercise in Skeletal Muscle. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2010; 20:282–290.

Pennings B, Koopman R, Beelen M, Senden JMG, et al. Exercising before protein intake allows for greater use of dietary protein-derived amino acids for de novo muscle protein synthesis in both young and elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 93:322–331.

Sureda A, Cordova A, Ferrer MD, Perez G, et al. l-Citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2010; 110:341–351.

Tipton KD. Nutrition for Acute Exercise-Induced Injuries. Ann Nutr Metab 2010; 57:43–53.

Effect of kidney failure and hemodialysis on protein and amino acid metabolism

Review: (pp. 78–84)

▪▪. Chen Y, Biada J, Sood S, Rabkin R. Uremia attenuates growth hormone-stimulated insulinlike growth factor-1 expression, a process worsened by inflammation. Kidney Int 2010; 78:89–95. [19]

▪. Chen Y, Sood S, McIntire K, et al. Leucine stimulated mTOR signaling is partly attenuated in skeletal muscle of chronically uremic rats especially when work overloaded. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2011. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo. 00068.2011. [29]

Haberle J. Clinical practice The management of hyperammonemia [Review]. Eur J Pediatr 2011; 170:21–34.

▪▪. Holzer M, Birner-Gruenberger R, Stojakovic T, et al. Uremia alters HDL composition and function. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22:1631–1641. [09]

▪. Hu J, Du J, Zhang L, et al. XIAP reduces muscle proteolysis induced by CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 21:1174–1183. [18]

Kato A, Suzuki Y, Suda T, Suzuki M, et al. Relationship between an increased serum kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and atherosclerotic parameters in hemodialysis patients. Hemodial Int 2010; 14:418–424.

Kempe DS, Ackermann TF, Boini KM, Klaus F, et al. Akt2/PKB beta-sensitive regulation of renal phosphate transport. Acta Physiol 2010; 200:75–85.

▪. Lecker SH, Mitch WE. Proteolysis by the ubiquitin–proteasome system and kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22:821–824. [16]

▪▪. Lu TM, Chung MY, Lin CC, et al. Asymmetric dimethylarginine and clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6:1566–1572. [05]

Oishi K, Hagiwara S, Koga S, Kawabe S, et al. Amino Acid Removal in High-Flow and Conventional Continuous Hemodiafiltration. Dial Transplant 2011; 40:110–117.

▪. Ooi EM, Chan DT, Watts GF, et al. Plasma apolipoprotein C-III metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Lipid Res 2011; 52:794–800. [10]

Siew ED, Ikizler TA. Insulin Resistance and Protein Energy Metabolism in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease. Semin Dial 2010; 23:378–382.

▪. Suneja M, Murry DJ, Stokes JB, Lim VS. Hormonal regulation of energy–protein homeostasis in hemodialysis patients: an anorexigenic profile that may predispose to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2011; 300:55–64. [12]

▪▪. Tessari P, Sofia A, Saffioti S, et al. Effects of chronic metabolic acidosis on splanchnic protein turnover and oxygen consumption in human beings. Gastroenterology 2010; 138:1557–1565. [14]

▪. Verzola D, Procopio V, Sofia A, et al. Apoptosis and myostatin mRNA are upregulated in the skeletal muscle of patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2011; 79:773–782. [27]

▪▪. Zhang L, Rajan V, Lin E, et al. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin suppresses systemic inflammation and muscle atrophy in mice with chronic kidney disease. FASEB J 2011; 25:1653–1663. [26]

▪▪. Zhang L, Wang XH, Wang H, et al. Satellite cell dysfunction and impaired IGF-1 signaling cause CKD-induced muscle atrophy. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 21:419–427. [21]

Cytokines: muscle protein and amino acid metabolism

Review: (pp. 85–91)

Baiersdorfer M, Schwarz M, Seehafer K, Lehmann C, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 mediates expression of clusterin/apolipoprotein J in vascular smooth muscle cells stimulated with RNA released from necrotic cells. Exp Cell Res 2010; 316:3489–3500.

Bonzo JA, Patterson AD, Krausz KW, Gonzalez FJ. Metabolomics Identifies Novel Hnf1 alpha-Dependent Physiological Pathways in Vivo. Mol Endocrinol 2010; 24:2343–2355.

Burnet PWJ, Anderson PN, Chen L, Nikiforova N, et al. D-Amino acid oxidase knockdown in the mouse cerebellum reduces NR2A mRNA. Mol Cell Neurosci 2011; 46:167–175.

▪. Georger J-F, Hamzaoui O, Chaari A, et al. Restoring arterial pressure with norepinephrine improves muscle tissue oxygenation assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy in severely hypotensive septic patients. Intensive Care Med 2010; 36:1882–1889. [54]

Goncharova EA, Lim PN, Chisolm A, Fogle HW, et al. Interferons modulate mitogen-induced protein synthesis in airway smooth muscle. Am J Physiol-Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2010; 299:L25–L35.

Groenendijk BCW, Benus GFJD, Klous A, Pacheco YM, et al. Activin A induces a non-fibrotic phenotype in smooth muscle cells in contrast to TGF-beta. Exp Cell Res 2011; 317:131–142.

Jobs E, Riserus U, Ingelsson E, Helmersson J, et al. Serum Cathepsin S Is Associated with Serum C-Reactive Protein and Interleukin-6 Independently of Obesity in Elderly Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010; 95:4460–4464.

▪▪. Klaude M, Mori M, Tjäder I, et al. Protein metabolism and gene expression in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients with sepsis. Clin Sci 2011; doi: 10.1042/CS20110233. [10]

Kogan K, Spear ED, Kaiser CA, Fass D. Structural Conservation of Components in the Amino Acid Sensing Branch of the TOR Pathway in Yeast and Mammals. J Mol Biol 2010; 402:388–398.

Liu ML, Wilk SA, Wang AP, Zhou LJ, et al. Resveratrol Inhibits mTOR Signaling by Promoting the Interaction between mTOR and DEPTOR. J Biol Chem 2010; 285:36387–36394.

Mascher H, Ekblom B, Rooyackers O, Blomstrand E. Enhanced rates of muscle protein synthesis and elevated mTOR signalling following endurance exercise in human subjects. Acta Physiol 2011; 202:175–184.

Mohamed JS, Boriek AM. Stretch augments TGF-beta 1 expression through RhoA/ROCK1/2, PTK, and PI3K in airway smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol-Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2010; 299:L413–L424.

Peter C, Waldmann H, Cobbold SP. mTOR signalling and metabolic regulation of T cell differentiation [Review]. Curr Opin Immunol 2010; 22:655–661.

▪. Timmerman KL, Lee JL, Dreyer HC, et al. Insulin stimulates human skeletal muscle protein synthesis via an indirect mechanism involving endothelial-dependent vasodilation and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010; 95:3848–3857. [40]

▪. Toth MJ, Le Winter MM, Ades PA, Matthews DE. Impaired muscle protein anabolic response to insulin and amino acids in heart failure patients: relationship with markers of immune activation. Clin Sci 2010; 119:467–476. [34]

▪▪. Vesali RF, Cibicek N, Jakobsson T, et al. Protein metabolism in leg muscle following an endotoxin injection in healthy volunteers. Clin Sci 2010; 118:421–427. [17]

Wolsk E, Mygind H, Grondahl TS, Pedersen BK, et al. IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol-Endocrinol Metab 2010; 299: E832–E840.

© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.