REVIEWImpact of diet on hydrogen sulfide production: implications for gut healthTeigen, Levia; Biruete, Annabelb,c; Khoruts, Alexandera,d,e Author Information aDivision of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota bDepartment of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette cDivision of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana dBioTechnology Institute, University of Minnesota, St. Paul eCenter for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA Correspondence to Dr Alexander Khoruts, University of Minnesota, 3-184 Wallin Medical Biosciences Building, Room 3-184, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA. Fax: +1 612 625 2155; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care: September 28, 2022 - Volume - Issue - 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000881 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000881 Buy PAP Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Excessive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production by the gut microbiota may contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple intestinal diseases, including colon cancer and ulcerative colitis. Therefore, understanding of dietary drivers of H2S production has potential implications for nutritional strategies to optimize gut health and treat intestinal diseases. Recent findings Recent studies support a positive relationship between dietary protein intake and H2S production. However, protein rarely exists in isolation in the diet, and dietary fiber intake could reduce H2S production in humans and animals, even with ∼30% of calories derived from protein. Summary These findings suggest that increased fiber intake may reduce H2S production irrespective of protein intake, enabling the ability to meet the metabolic demands of the illness while supporting gut health. Here we discuss two recent ulcerative colitis diet studies that illustrate this point. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.