REVIEWHeterogeneity of white adipocytes in metabolic diseaseBilson, Josha,b; Sethi, Jaswinder K.a,b,c; Byrne, Christopher D.a,b Author Information aHuman Development and Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton bNational Institute for Health and Care Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust cInstitute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom Correspondence to Professor Christopher D. Byrne, Human Development and Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK. Tel: +44 23 8120 5006; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care ():10.1097/MCO.0000000000000885, January 12, 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000885 Buy PAP Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This review aims to discuss the most recent evidence identifying the presence of distinct white adipocyte subpopulations in white adipose tissue (WAT) and how these may be altered with increasing adiposity and/or metabolic disease. We conceptualize how changes in adipocyte subpopulations may contribute to alterations in WAT function and the development of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent findings Studies utilizing novel analytical approaches support the existence of distinct white adipocyte subpopulations in both human and murine WAT. Adipocyte subtypes are potentially functionally distinct and may have different roles in WAT function and obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Summary The exploration of white adipocyte heterogeneity using novel analytical technologies, has unveiled a new layer of complexity in the study of WAT biology. Interrogation of potential functional differences between adipocyte subpopulations and their role in the function of different WAT depots is now needed. Through understanding the mechanisms regulating white adipocyte subtype development and potential pathophysiological consequences of changes in the presence of adipocyte subpopulations, studies could provide novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of T2DM, NAFLD, and CVD. Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.