NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTION: Edited by Labros S. Sidossis and Carla PradoSarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in chronic kidney disease: update on prevalence, outcomes, risk factors and nutrition treatmentBarreto Silva, Maria Inêsa,b,c; Picard, Kellya; Klein, Márcia Regina Simas Torresb Author Information aHuman Nutrition Research Unit, Division of Human Nutrition, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada bDepartment of Applied Nutrition, Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University cDepartment of Applied Nutrition, Nutrition School, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Correspondence to Maria Inês Barreto Silva, Department of Applied Nutrition, Nutrition School, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care: November 2022 - Volume 25 - Issue 6 - p 371-377 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000871 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This review summarizes literature from the last 18 months reporting on sarcopenia (or its components) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent findings The prevalence of sarcopenia in CKD is reported to be 5–62.5%, with higher rates observed later in the disease. Sarcopenic obesity rates are reported to be 2–23%. Sarcopenia in CKD is associated with increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease and vascular calcification. Risk factors include kidney disease itself and the impacts of CKD on lifestyle (reduced physical activity, diet changes). In earlier stages of CKD, if the risks from sarcopenia outweigh the risk of reaching end-stage renal disease, ensuring adequate energy intake combined with modest protein liberalization and physical activity may be indicated. Protein intakes above 1.3 g/kg of body weight per day should be avoided. For dialysis patients, interventions that provide a combination of carbohydrate, protein and fat appear more effective than those that provide protein alone, though it may take as long as 48 weeks for detectable changes in muscle mass. Summary Sarcopenia is prevalent in CKD as kidney disease significantly impacts muscle mass and function. Nutrition interventions can improve components of sarcopenia, with an emphasis on adequate energy and protein. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.