NUTRITION AND THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: Edited by Michael P. Casaer and Adam M. DeaneNutritional therapy in critically ill patients with diabetesDoola, Ra’eesaa; Preiser, Jean-Charlesb Author Information aPrincess Alexandra Hospital, Metro South Health; PA- Southside Clinical Unit, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia bErasme University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium Correspondence to Ra’eesa Doola, BHlthSci (Nutr&Diet), PhD, Nutrition and Dietetics, Ground level, Building 15, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Road, Woolloongabba, 4102, Australia. Tel: +61 7 3176 7938; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care: March 2022 - Volume 25 - Issue 2 - p 93-98 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000807 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review There has been a significant increase in nutrition therapy related studies within the critical care cohort in recent years. Management of patients with both diabetes and stress hyperglycaemia through targeted nutrition interventions is no exception. The aim of this review is to outline current available diabetes specific nutrition formula, its impact on gastric emptying and subsequently glycaemic control as well as explore recent literature on the efficacy of utilizing nutrition support to optimize glycaemic control in critically ill patients. Recent findings Studies explored within this review were similar in terms of outcomes measures, focusing primarily on insulin use and glycaemic control. Although there were promising results in terms of the impact of diabetes-specific nutrition formula on these outcome measures, there were no significant associations with clinical outcomes. Summary The use of diabetes-specific formulae in critically ill patients with pre-existing diabetes and stress hyperglycaemia can be considered a logical approach to minimize the risks associated with high doses of insulin. Additional research is required to address the effects of these formulae on the dysglycaemia, nursing workload, safety of glycaemic control and cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.