Purpose of review
Appetite control results from metabolic, behavioral, and environmental factors that influence hunger and the desire to eat. We summarize the latest advances in the hormonal and nutritional strategies to control appetite and reduce hunger.
The fed-hunger-state is regulated by central and peripheric hormones, which modulate energy balance. Leptin, insulin, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and other gut-derived peptides represent the main appetite controllers. The role of orexins, obestatin, and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 has been uncovered recently. New insights have demonstrated the role of hippocampal activity as a possible mechanism of action. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor agonists are well known agents controlling appetite. Association of GLP1 receptor agonist, PYY, or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide agonists have been tested as new approaches. Appetite-control hormones have also risen as factors involved in the efficacy of bariatric procedures. High-protein, ketogenic diet, and intermittent fasting have been described as nutritional strategies to reduce appetite, although the physiological mechanism and long-term safety remains unclear.
Appetite control has been an important target for the treatment of obesity and associated disorders. New studies have demonstrated promising adoption of dietary approaches, hormone-based drugs, and bariatric surgery to control energy intake. Further research will establish a significant association, benefits, and safety of these new therapies.