CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Bettina Mittendorfer and Olle LjungqvistCarbohydrate composition in breast milk and its effect on infant healthBerger, Paige K.a; Plows, Jasmine F.a; Demerath, Ellen W.b; Fields, David A.cAuthor Information aDepartment of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California bDivision of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota cDepartment of Pediatrics, Section of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA Correspondence to David A. Fields, PhD, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 1200 Children's Avenue Suite 4500, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA. Tel: +1 405 271 8001x43083; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care: July 2020 - Volume 23 - Issue 4 - p 277-281 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000658 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This narrative review presents the current state of available evidence regarding the role of breast milk carbohydrates on infant outcomes, with a primary focus on growth and body composition. Recent findings To date, there is a paucity of available data that exists in this realm. The current literature focuses on the role of two carbohydrate fractions in breast milk, and their relationships with infant outcomes in the first six months of life: oligosaccharides and fructose. A small but growing body of research indicates robust associations of both oligosaccharides and fructose in breast milk with infant weight and length, as well as bone, fat, and lean mass. There is also emerging evidence to support the role of these same carbohydrate fractions in breast milk in infant cognitive development. Summary The present state of the science suggests that oligosaccharides and fructose in breast milk play a role in infant growth and body composition and introduces intriguing associations of these two carbohydrate fractions with infant cognitive development as well. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.