PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and Alessandro LavianoArginine supplementation and cardiometabolic riskMariotti, FrançoisAuthor Information UMR PNCA, AgroParisTech, INRA, Université Paris-Saclay, 75005, Paris, France Correspondence to Prof. François Mariotti, UMR PNCA, AgroParisTech, INRA, Université Paris-Saclay, 16 rue Claude Bernard, F-75005 Paris, France. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care: January 2020 - Volume 23 - Issue 1 - p 29-34 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000612 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Because arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, which is pivotal to vascular homeostasis and linked to the insulin response, it has long been posited that supplemental arginine could benefit cardiometabolic health. Recent findings Recent data have supported the view that supplemental arginine could alleviate the initiation and development of endothelial dysfunction and also shown that it may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. One important finding is that these effects may indeed vary as a function of the amount of arginine, its form and notably the metabolic status of the population. Some studies have shown that low doses of slow-release arginine are better used for nitric oxide synthesis and beneficial in individuals with abnormal arginine metabolism/bioavailability. Pathophysiological data in rodents have emphasized the importance of arginase activation during the development of cardiometabolic risk, which lends credence to a potential benefit for arginine supplements. Likewise, epidemiological evidence suggests that alterations to arginine bioavailability are important regarding the cardiometabolic risk. However, other metabolic mechanisms linked to the multiple pathways of arginine metabolism may also play a role. Summary Further studies are needed to confirm and analyze how and when supplemental arginine is beneficial to cardiometabolic health. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.