To examine the consequences of metabolism compartmentalized at the subcellular level, provide prototypical examples of compartmentalized metabolism, and describe methods to examine compartmentalized metabolism.
Progress in metabolomics and isotope tracing has underscored the importance of subcellular compartments of metabolism. The discovery of biological effects of metabolites as bioenergetic intermediates, anabolic building blocks, signaling mediators, and effectors in posttranslation modifications of proteins and nucleic acids have highlighted the role of compartmentalization in determining metabolic fate. Recent advances in both direct and indirect methods to quantify compartmentalized metabolism have improved upon historical approaches. Genetically encoded metabolite sensors, chemical probes, immunoaffinity purification, and compartment-resolved metabolic modeling have all been recently applied to study compartmentalization.
Accurate measurement of metabolites in distinct subcellular compartments is important for understanding and pharmacologically targeting metabolic pathways in diverse disease contexts, including cancer, diabetes, heart failure, obesity, and regulation of the immune system. Direct and indirect approaches to quantify compartmentalized metabolism are advancing rapidly. Yet, major challenges remain in the generalizability, rigor, and interpretation of data from the available methods to quantify compartmentalized metabolism.
aDepartment of Cancer Biology
bAbramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
cA.J. Drexel Autism Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Correspondence to Nathaniel W. Snyder, 3020 Market Street, Suite 560, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. E-mail: Nws28@drexel.edu