CARBOHYDRATES: Edited by Luc Tappy and Bettina MittendorferIntestinal lipogenesis how carbs turn on triglyceride production in the gutHoffman, Simona,b,*; Alvares, Daniellea,b,*; Adeli, Khosrowa,bAuthor Information aMolecular Medicine, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children bDepartment of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Correspondence to Khosrow Adeli, Molecular Medicine, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Room 3652 Atrium, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada. Tel: +1 416 813 8682; fax: +1 416 813 6257; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care: July 2019 - Volume 22 - Issue 4 - p 284-288 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000569 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To review recent evidence for the role of carbohydrates in the promotion of de novo lipogenesis and lipoprotein secretion from the intestine. Recent findings The consumption of diets rich in carbohydrates have been shown to promote elevations in circulating lipids. In particular, the consumption of monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, have been shown to induce increases in intestinal de novo lipogenesis, as well as be used as a substrate for the synthesis of triglycerides and lipoprotein export in the form of chylomicrons. Recently, various systematic reviews have analyzed the relative contribution of dietary fructose to intestinal lipogenesis. Although, there remains controversy within the literature, the body of evidence supports lipogenic effects of high fructose diets. In addition, alterations in markers of de novo lipogenesis within the jejunum of patients with insulin resistance may explain the alterations in their postprandial lipid profile. Summary Recent evidence supports the contribution of dietary carbohydrates to intestinal lipogenesis and lipoprotein secretion; however, further research is required to fully understand the mechanisms underlying this complex process. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.