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Multiomics-based strategies for taming intestinal inflammation in the neonate

Neu, Josef

Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care: May 2019 - Volume 22 - Issue 3 - p 217–222
doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000559
PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold Koletzko and Raanan Shamir
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Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to discuss evolving research into intestinal inflammatory responses as they relate to the developing microbiome and to provide insights into developing multiomic tools that are being used to describe these relationships. Intestinal inflammatory conditions are common, and in the neonate present special challenges, especially in the form of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and other conditions that involve damage or breakdown of the mucosal barrier, leading to systemic inflammation and damage to distal sites, such as the liver and brain.

Recent findings Recent studies show that when a dysbiosis (microbial imbalance or impaired microbiota) occurs, an inflammatory response that can affect the entire body is frequently the result. We are recognizing that not only the microbial diversity and relative abundance of certain taxa play a role in dysbiosis and inflammation, but their functional capabilities in terms of metabolite production and interaction with the immune system of the host afre critical in future health and disease.

Summary A multiomic approach to evaluate these microorgansims as well as their interaction with the host by using systems-based concepts is becoming possible and is likely to shed new light on various disease entities and how we can best prevent and treat them.

Department of Pediatrics/Neonatology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

Correspondence to Josef Neu, MD, Professor, Department of Pediatrics/Neonatology, Room 112, Human Development Building, 1600 SE Archer Road, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. Tel: +1 352 273 8985; e-mail: neuj@peds.ufl.edu

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