Lipoprotein lipase new roles for an ‘old’ enzymeChang, Chuchun L.Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care: March 2019 - Volume 22 - Issue 2 - p 111–115 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000536 LIPID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Philip C. Calder and Richard J. Deckelbaum Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Purpose of review Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) is well known for its lipolytic action in blood lipoprotein triglyceride catabolism. This article summarizes the recent mechanistic and molecular studies on elucidating the ‘unconventional’ roles of LpL in mediating biological events related to immune cell response and lipid transport in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and tissue degenerative disorders. Recent findings Several approaches to inactivate the inhibitors that block LpL enzymatic activity have reestablished the importance of systemic LpL activity in reducing CVD risk. On the other hand, increasing evidence suggests that focal arterial expression of LpL relates to aortic macrophage levels and inflammatory processes. In the hematopoietic origin, LpL also plays a role in modulating hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and circulating blood cell levels and phenotypes. Finally, building upon the strong genetic evidence on the association with assorted brain disorders, a new era in exploring the mechanistic insights into the functions and activity of LpL in brain that impacts central nerve systems has begun. Summary A better understanding of the molecular action of LpL will help to devise novel strategies for intervention of a number of diseases, including blood cell or metabolic disorders, as well to inhibit pathways related to CVD and tissue degenerative processes. Institute of Human Nutrition, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA Correspondence to Chuchun L. Chang, PhD Institute of Human Nutrition, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630W 168th Street, PH1512, New York, NY 10032, USA. Tel: +212 305 4808; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.