PROTEIN, AMINO ACID METABOLISM AND THERAPY: Edited by Rajavel Elango and Alessandro LavianoContraction and nutrition interaction promotes anabolism in cachectic muscleDi Girolamo, Filippo Giorgio; Guadagni, Martina; Fiotti, Nicola; Situlin, Roberta; Biolo, GianniAuthor Information Clinica Medica ASUITs, Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Cattinara University Hospital, Trieste, Italy Correspondence to Professor Gianni Biolo, MD, PhD, ‘Clinica Medica, ASUITs,’ Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Cattinara University Hospital, Strada di Fiume 447, 34149 Trieste, Italy. Tel +39 40 399 4532; fax +39 40 399 4593;. e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care: January 2019 - Volume 22 - Issue 1 - p 60-67 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000527 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Cachexia is a disease-related multifactorial syndrome characterized by inflammation, massive muscle protein catabolism and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism disorder. Several studies tried to define the impact of either nutrition or physical exercise (single approach strategy) or their combination (multimodal approach strategy) on prevention and/or treatment of muscle wasting in cachectic patients. Recent findings Single approach strategies (i.e. nutrition or physical exercise) have the potential of preventing and improving features of the cachexia syndrome possibly with a differential impact according to the underlying disease. Limited information is available on the beneficial effect of multimodal approach strategies. Summary Multimodal approaches appear to be more effective than those based on single interventions in physiological condition and in cachectic patients with COPD or chronic kidney disease. Further studies, however, are required in cachexia induced by heart failure, cancer and critical illness. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.