MICRONUTRIENTS: Edited by Henry C. Lukaski and Véronique CoxamDietary vitamin D, vitamin D receptor, and microbiomeSun, JunAuthor Information Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA Correspondence to Jun Sun, PhD, AGAF, Professor of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Departments of Medicine, Microbiology/Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 S Wood Street, Room 704 CSB, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. Tel: +1 312 996 5020; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care: November 2018 - Volume 21 - Issue 6 - p 471-474 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000516 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The current review is to summarize the recent progress of vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) and microbiome in intestinal homeostasis, airway function, and other organs. Recent findings Microbiome is considered as a newly discovered human organ. It is critical in the synthesis of vitamins and harvest of otherwise inaccessible nutrients, metabolism of xenobiotics, body fat storage, renewal of gut epithelial cells, and mature of immune system. Vitamin D and VDR are known to regulate microbiome in health and disease. We will focus on the recent findings published in 12–18 months and discuss the vitamin D supplement and its effects on microbiome, intestinal homeostasis, airway function, and metabolism. We will emphasize the tissue specificity and genetic factor of VDR and microbiome. Summary The findings in dietary vitamin D, VDR, and microbiome with personalized genetic information will be implicated for optimal prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.