Purpose of review
Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) is a long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is intermediary between eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the n-3 synthesis pathway. DPA is part of our normal diet through fish and lean red meat. In recent years, DPA has received increasing attention as an important bioactive fatty acid in light of its potential beneficial health effects, which include anti-inflammatory actions, antiplatelet aggregation, and improved plasma lipid prolife. This review provides a short summary of the most recent research on DPA.
In this review, we report on the latest association data as well as data generated from in-vitro and in-vivo studies on DPA and cardiovascular health, mental health, inflammation, and cancer. We also report on the newly identified DPA metabolites and their effects on exacerbation of inflammation in animal models.
Although there is a growing body of evidence supporting DPA's role as an important bioactive fatty acid, there is a need for more ‘cause and effect studies’, clinical trials and studies which can reveal whether DPA plays separate roles to those identified for eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.