Purpose of review
Preventing unintentional weight and muscle loss is of crucial importance to maintain the condition and well-being of patients with cancer, improve treatment response and tolerance, and prolong survival. Anabolic resistance might explain why some cancer patients do not respond to nutritional intervention, but does recent evidence actually support this? We will discuss recent literature that casts doubt on attenuated anabolic potential in cancer.
Although anabolic resistance was observed in the past, more recent studies have shown that advanced cancer patients have an anabolic potential after intake of high-quality proteins. Furthermore, a consistent linear relationship is observed in cancer between (essential) amino acid availability from the diet and net protein gain. The studied cancer patients, however, were often characterized by a normal or obese body weight, following the trend in the general population, and mild systemic inflammation. Factors like recent chemotherapy, surgery, or cachexia do not seem to attenuate the anabolic potential to feeding.
Cancer patients have a normal anabolic potential which relates to the amount of essential amino acids in the meal. It remains to be determined if this is also the case in weak cancer patients with a short life expectancy and high systemic inflammation.