GENES AND CELL METABOLISM: Edited by Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt Jr. and Philip NewsholmeThe potential regulatory role of vitamin D in the bioenergetics of inflammationCalton, Emily K.a; Keane, Kevin N.b; Soares, Mario J.a Author Information aSchool of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute of Ageing & Chronic Disease bSchool of Biomedical Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute of Ageing & Chronic Disease, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia Correspondence to Mario J Soares, School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia,6102, Australia. Tel: +61 08 9266 3220; fax: +61 08 9266 2958; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 18(4):p 367-373, July 2015. | DOI: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000186 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The extraskeletal health benefits of vitamin D still need scientific endorsement. Obesity and related chronic diseases are pathogenically linked by inflammation, which carries a considerable energetic cost. Recent techniques for the determination of the bioenergetic demand of inflammation, offer an avenue to cement the regulatory role of vitamin D in this process. Recent findings Nuclear vitamin D receptors may be translocated into mitochondria of certain cell types, opening up a pathway for direct action on cellular bioenergetics. Classical M1 (inflammatory)/M2(anti-inflammatory) phenotypes can vary with the clinical context. M2 macrophages do not always depend on oxidative metabolism/fatty acid oxidation. Newer methodologies offer real-time bioenergetic measurements that can be used as an index of metabolic health. Summary Vitamin D may prove to be a therapeutic agent for inflammation of chronic disease and understanding its role in cellular bioenergetics may offer a diagnostic/prognostic indicator of its action. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.