PAEDIATRICS: Edited by Berthold V. Koletzko and Raanan ShamirTransition of maternal and child nutrition in Asia implications for public healthWinichagoon, PattaneeAuthor Information Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Thailand Correspondence to Pattanee Winichagoon, Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Phutthamonthon 4 Rd, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Tel: +66 2 800 2380; fax: +66 2 441 9344; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care: May 2015 - Volume 18 - Issue 3 - p 312-317 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000158 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This article reviews the maternal and child nutrition situation in Asia in transition and its public health implications. Recent findings Countries in Asia are facing a double burden of malnutrition. Accessibility to high energy, less nutrient-dense foods or processed foods affects current dietary patterns, whereas industrialization is leading to more sedentary lifestyles both in rural and urban areas. Stunting and wasting among young children persist but have declined in severity, whereas overweight and obesity have risen rapidly. Growth faltering in height during the first 2 years of life has affected muscle mass accretion, but rapid weight gain after 2 years of age has led to more fat accretion, imposing risks of childhood obesity and consequent metabolic disorders. The number of women entering pregnancy with low BMI has decreased, but increasing BMI is noticeable. Prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain are important determinants of maternal nutrition during pregnancy, the risk of gestational diabetes and postpartum weight retention, as well as obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases in later adulthood. Summary Asia in transition is faced with persistent undernutrition and increasing trends of obesity and metabolic disorders among children and women. The first 1000 days from conception is a critical period, but it is also a window of opportunity for preventing double burden of malnutrition in Asian countries characterized by a nutrition transition. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.