Brown adipose tissue and the regulation of nonshivering thermogenesisvan Marken Lichtenbelt, WouterCurrent Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care: November 2012 - Volume 15 - Issue 6 - p 547–552 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e3283599184 NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTION: Edited by Annemie Schols and Labros S Sidossis Abstract Author Information Purpose of review The recent rediscovery of functional cold activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans fuelled an uprise in studies on this tissue. This review focuses on the contribution of human BAT to nonshivering thermogenesis and on factors other than cold that activate BAT. Recent findings Earlier studies revealed BAT activity using a glucose tracer for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning. Several recent studies, using a mix of tracers and PET/CT dynamic scanning showed that human brown fat is metabolically active and related to the perfusion of the tissue. The actual contribution of BAT to nonshivering thermogenesis still needs to be explored. The last few years, several new factors that activate human BAT have been described. These studies also highlight the plasticity of brown and white adipose tissue. Some of these factors may have pharmacological significance. Summary New PET/CT studies provide information on oxidative human BAT metabolism in vivo. This new information in combination with the study on factors activating BAT are promising with respect to management of obesity and related disorders. Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism of Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands Correspondence to Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt, Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism of Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 43 3881629; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.