Carbohydrates: David D'Alessio and Luc TappyOral carbohydrate sensing and exercise performanceJeukendrup, Asker E; Chambers, Edward SAuthor Information School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK Correspondence to Professor Asker E. Jeukendrup, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK Tel: +44 121 414 4124; fax: +44 121 414 4121; e-mail: A.E.Jeukendrup@bham.ac.uk Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care: July 2010 - Volume 13 - Issue 4 - p 447-451 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e328339de83 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Carbohydrate during exercise has been demonstrated to improve exercise performance even when the exercise is of high intensity (>75% VO2max) and relatively short duration (∼1 h). It has become clear that the underlying mechanisms for the ergogenic effect during this type of activity are not metabolic but may reside in the central nervous system. Recent findings Carbohydrate mouth rinses have been shown to result in similar performance improvements. This would suggest that the beneficial effects of carbohydrate feeding during exercise are not confined to its conventional metabolic advantage but may also serve as a positive afferent signal capable of modifying motor output. These effects are specific to carbohydrate and are independent of taste. The receptors in the oral cavity have not (yet) been identified and the exact role of various brain areas is not clearly understood. Further research is warranted to fully understand the separate taste transduction pathways for simple and complex carbohydrates and how these differ between mammalian species, particularly in humans. Summary Carbohydrate is detected in oral cavity by unidentified receptors and this can be linked to improvements in exercise performance. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.