Purpose of review
To highlight the satiating background and effects of proteins and their implications for weight management.
The satiating effect of protein is the key player in body-weight loss and body-weight maintenance thereafter. Specific high-protein meals or high-protein diets induced satiety require a realistic bandwidth of energy intake, protein concentrations, texture, and timing of assessment of effects. Satiety is nutrient specifically supported by elevated amino acid concentrations, responses of anorexigenic hormones or protein-induced energy expenditure. During long-term high-protein diets sustained satiety, energy expenditure, and sparing fat-free body mass are essential. For effects due to satiety, ad libitum energy intake conditions are necessary. Adverse events related to kidney damage may occur with sulphur-containing amino acids; individuals with obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus II may be susceptible groups.
Highly controlled medium-term studies overcoming possible differences due to texture, timing and macronutrient exchange, and assessing satiety, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation at the same time, need to be executed with a realistic bandwidth of different types of proteins in overweight individuals in different energy balances.