Purpose of review
The aim of this study is to review the physiopathology and the nutritional aspects of wound healing.
Wound healing consists of a perfect and coordinated cascade of events that result in tissue reconstitution. The healing process is common to all wounds, independent of the agent that has caused it. It is divided didactically into three phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling or maturation. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and is also the main component of the wound matrix. It is organized in a thick and dynamic net, resulting from constant collagen deposition and reabsorption. Wound scar is the result of the interaction between collagen synthesis, degradation, and remodeling. There are several ways to evaluate wound healing: tensiometry, collagen morphometry, immunohistochemistry, and, more recently, the dosage of growth factors. Malnutrition adversely affects wound healing. On the contrary, the healing process can be stimulated by preoperative feeding and by certain nutrients such as glutamine, arginine, butyrate, and antioxidants.
Wound healing is a complex process that started to be fully understood only in recent years. Recent research has been directed to act in the nutrition modulation of the healing process.