Ageing: biology and nutrition: Edited by Ronni Chernoff and Paolo M. SuterVitamin D and cardiovascular disease riskMichos, Erin Da; Melamed, Michal LbAuthor Information aDepartment of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland bDepartment of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, and Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA Correspondence to Erin D. Michos, MD, MHS, Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Carnegie 568A, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA Tel: +1 410 502 6813; fax: +1 410 955 3478; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care: January 2008 - Volume 11 - Issue 1 - p 7-12 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e3282f2f4dd Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Despite our understanding of how to prevent and treat traditional cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death of both men and women in the US. Thus, there is widespread interest in a number of emerging nontraditional risk factors for the detection of early cardiovascular disease in order to implement aggressive preventive therapies. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D deficiency has been identified as a potential novel cardiovascular disease risk factor. This review outlines what is known about the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and cardiovascular disease risk. Recent findings Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels have been associated with the cardiovascular disease risk factors of hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome, as well as cardiovascular disease events including stroke and congestive heart failure. Studies suggest vitamin D deficiency may be a contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease potentially through associations with diabetes or hypertension. Summary Vitamin D deficiency is easy to screen for and easy to treat with supplementation. Further larger observational studies and randomized clinical trials are, however, needed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation could have any potential benefit in reducing future cardiovascular disease events and mortality risk. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.