Nutrition and physiological function: Edited by Wim H.M. SarisMitochondrial thermogenesis and obesityGambert, Ségolène; Ricquier, Daniel Author Information Biologie des transporteurs mitochondriaux et métabolisme, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS, Paris, France Correspondence to Professor Daniel Ricquier, BIOTRAM, Université Paris Descartes Site Necker-Enfants Malades, CNRS UPR 9078, 156 Rue de Vaugirard 75730, Paris Cedex 15, France Tel: +33 1 40 61 56 70; fax: +33 1 40 61 56 73; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care: November 2007 - Volume 10 - Issue 6 - p 664-670 doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e3282f0b69d Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Thermogenesis is activated at the expense of carbon molecules. Mitochondria play a dominant role in oxidation and parallel heat production since the recovery of oxidation energy is less than perfect. Recent data of mitochondriogenesis and mitochondrial thermogenesis may boost research into certain aspects of obesity. Recent findings Recent studies have outlined the unexpected decreased thermogenesis that limits fat loss during prolonged food restriction. Activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle remains a strategy against fat accumulation, however. Certain adipose depots have the potential to promote thermogenesis, either using mitochondrial uncoupling protein or independently. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivators α and ß are important regulators of mitochondria thermogenesis. Brain mitochondria are involved in the control of refeeding after starvation. This dual action of mitochondria inform their role in thermogenesis and energy partitioning. The importance of thyroid hormones in mitochondria thermogenesis is also confirmed. Summary The clinical and research implications of these findings are that the mechanisms inhibiting adaptive thermogenesis during diet restriction should be investigated. An important field of research is the contribution of transcriptional coactivators to adipocyte plasticity since adipocytes have an underestimated ability to oxidise fatty acids in addition to their role in triglyceride storage. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.