Purpose of review
The basis for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) inevitably involves lifestyle modification, including dietary pattern (DP). The aim of this review is to address the different models of healthy DP with their peculiarities and nutritional components as well as their importance in the management of CVD.
Classical cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes are strongly influenced by diet and physical activity. However, current evidence supports the role of emerging risk factors such as inflammatory status, oxidative stress and endothelial function in the development of CVD. Likewise, recent evidence explores how healthy DP can modulate CVD risk through these risk factors.
Although the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is the paradigm of the healthy DP in the light of current scientific evidence, there are other DP that we should be aware of due to their results in epidemiological studies, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses on CVD risk modulation. The best-analysed DP are the MedDiet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), the Nordic DP, the Vegetarian DP, the Portfolio DP, the Low-carbohydrate DP and the Planetary Health diet initiative.