Purpose of review
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has an increasing global prevalence. Diastolic dysfunction is the predominant cause of symptoms, most commonly, exertional dyspnea. Although prevalent, the syndrome is challenging to identify due to the comorbid conditions that can present similarly. This paper will review established, guideline recommended, echocardiographic variables, and pathophysiology.
Echocardiography is the primary diagnostic modality. The latest advances in strain analysis, algorithmic use of multiple parameters, and deeper understanding of exercise hemodynamics have improved our classification of those with HFpEF.
There remains a paucity of therapies with mortality benefit in this subgroup. Thus, improving diagnostic efficacy is important as it can clarify epidemiologic, phenotypic, and pathologic features of HFpEF.