HYPERTENSION: Edited by Hector O. Ventura and Carl J. LavieHypertension and diabetes mellitus: highlights of a complex relationshipYildiz, Mehmeta; Esenboğa, Kerimb; Oktay, Ahmet AfşincAuthor Information aDepartment of Medicine, Southern Ohio Medical Center, Portsmouth, Ohio, USA bDepartment of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey cDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Wentworth-Douglass Hospital, Partners HealthCare, Dover, New Hampshire, USA Correspondence to Ahmet Afşin Oktay, MD, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Wentworth-Douglass Hospital, Partners HealthCare, 789 Central Ave, Dover 03820, NH, USA. Tel: +1 603 516 4265; fax: +1 603 740 2173; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Cardiology: July 2020 - Volume 35 - Issue 4 - p 397-404 doi: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000748 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Herein, we provide a review of the recent literature on the epidemiological and pathophysiological relationship between hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus, along with prognostic implications and current treatment concepts. Recent findings Diabetes mellitus affects ∼10% of US adults. The prevalence of HTN in adults with diabetes mellitus was 76.3% or 66.0% based on the definitions used by guidelines. There exist differences among major society guidelines regarding the definition of HTN and target blood pressure (BP) levels. Recent basic and clinical research studies have shed light on pathophysiologic and genetic links between HTN and diabetes mellitus. Randomized controlled trials over the past 5 years have confirmed the favorable BP and cardiovascular risk reduction by antidiabetic agents. Summary HTN and diabetes mellitus are ‘silent killers’ with rising global prevalence. The development of HTN and diabetes mellitus tracks each other over time. The coexistence of both clinical entities synergistically contributes to micro- and macro-vasculopathy along with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Various shared mechanisms underlie the pathophysiological relationship between HTN and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, BP reduction with lifestyle interventions and antihypertensive agents is a primary target for reducing cardiovascular risk among patients with HTN and diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.