MOLECULAR GENETICS: Edited by Ali J. MarianGut microbiome and cardiovascular diseaseZhao, Yongzhong; Wang, ZenengAuthor Information Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Sciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Correspondence to Zeneng Wang, PhD, Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Sciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA. Tel: +1 216 445 2484; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Cardiology: May 2020 - Volume 35 - Issue 3 - p 207-218 doi: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000720 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This review aims to highlight the association between gut microbiome and cardiovascular disease (CVD) with emphasis on the possible molecular mechanisms by which how gut microbiome contributes to CVD. Recent findings Increasingly, the roles of gut microbiome in cardiovascular health and disease have gained much attention. Most of the investigations focus on how the gut dysbiosis contributes to CVD risk factors and which gut microbial-derived metabolites mediate such effects. Summary In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of gut microbiome contributing to CVD, which include gut microbes translocalization to aortic artery because of gut barrier defect to initiate inflammation and microbial-derived metabolites inducing inflammation-signaling pathway and renal insufficiency. Specifically, we categorize beneficial and deleterious microbial-derived metabolites in cardiovascular health. We also summarize recent findings in the gut microbiome modulation of drug efficacy in treatment of CVD and the microbiome mechanisms by which how physical exercise ameliorates cardiovascular health. Gut microbiome has become an essential component of cardiovascular research and a crucial consideration factor in cardiovascular health and disease. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.