PREVENTION: Edited by Ron BlanksteinCurrent and future role of lipoprotein(a) in preventive cardiologyBerman, Adam N.a,b; Blankstein, Rona,b Author Information aCardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine bDepartment of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Correspondence to Ron Blankstein, MD, FACC, Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine; Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Cardiology 34(5):p 514-518, September 2019. | DOI: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000661 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to highlight our emerging understanding of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]'s role in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), its structure–function relationship, and promising developments within the therapeutic pipeline. Recent findings Elevated levels of Lp(a) are strongly associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, calcific aortic valve stenosis, and ischemic stroke. With circulating levels almost exclusively genetically mediated, increased levels of Lp(a) contribute significantly to the residual cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with otherwise well controlled risk factors. The unique structure of Lp(a) – comprised of a genetically heterogeneous apolipoprotein(a) molecule bound to an LDL-like moiety – provides insight into its pathogenic role in cardiovascular disease and also complicates its accurate measurement. Emerging therapies targeting the apolipoprotein(a) component of Lp(a) have the potential to revolutionize the management of individuals with elevated Lp(a). Summary With promising therapies on the horizon, there has been a renewed focus on the role of Lp(a) in ASCVD. Given Lp(a)'s strong and independent association with key cardiovascular outcomes, it is hopeful that these promising targeted therapies will add another therapeutic option for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.