Comprehensive analyses of the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome are instrumental in identifying biomarkers of disease, to gain insight into mechanisms underlying the development of cardiovascular disease, and show promise for better stratifying patients according to disease subtypes. This review highlights recent ‘omics’ studies, including integration of multiple ‘omics’ that have advanced mechanistic understanding and diagnosis in humans and animal models.
Transcriptome-based discovery continues to be a primary method to obtain data for hypothesis generation and the understanding of disease pathogenesis has been enhanced by single cell-based methods capable of revealing heterogeneity in cellular responses. Advances in proteome coverage and quantitation of individual protein species, together with enhanced methods for detecting posttranslational modifications, have improved discovery of protein-based biomarkers.
High-throughput assays capable of quantitating the vast majority of any particular type of biomolecule within a tissue sample, isolated cells or plasma are now available. In order to make best use of the large amount of data that can be generated on given molecule types, as well as their interrelationships in disease, continued development of pattern-recognition algorithms (‘machine learning’) will be required and the subclassification of disease that is made possible by such algorithms will be likely to inform clinical practice, and vice versa.
Diabetes and Complications Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, USA
Correspondence to Scot J. Matkovich, PhD, Principal Research Scientist, Diabetes and Complications Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. Tel: +1 317 433 9359; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org