Nonpharmacologic lifestyle modification interventions (LMIs), such as increasing physical activity, dietary modification, weight-loss, reducing alcohol consumption and smoking cessation, are effective strategies to lower resting blood pressures (BPs) in prehypertensive or hypertensive patients. However, the limited time shared between a physician and a patient is not adequate to instill an adoption of LMI. The purpose of this review is to therefore highlight evidence-based BP lowering, LMI strategies that can feasibly be implemented in clinical practices.
Interventions focusing on modifying physical activity, diet, weight-loss, drinking and smoking habits have established greater efficacy in reducing elevated BP compared with providing guideline recommendations based on national guidelines. Alone greater reductions in BP can be achieved through programmes that provide frequent contact time with exercise, nutrition and/or wellness professionals. Programmes that educate individuals to lead peer support groups can be an efficient method of ensuring compliance to LMI.
Evidence of a multidisciplinary approach to LMI is an effective and attractive model in managing elevated BP. This strategy is an attractive model that provides the necessary patient attention to confer lifestyle maintenance.
aDepartment of Physical Therapy and the Integrative Physiology Laboratory, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
bClinic for Cardiology, University Clinical Center Serbia, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
cDivision of Pulmonary, Department of Medicine, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
dDepartment of Cardiovascular Diseases, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School-University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
Correspondence to Ross Arena, Department of Physical Therapy and the Integrative Physiology Laboratory, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org