Noncoding RNAs regulate many aspects of cardiovascular biology and are potential therapy targets. In this review, we summarize and highlight current discoveries in the field of microRNAs, a class of noncoding RNAs.
miRNAs regulate posttranscriptional gene expression and have been shown to control cardiac development, hypertrophy, fibrosis, and regeneration. Of note are the miRNAs that regulate cardiac contractility (for example, miR-25 and miR-22), cardiac regeneration (like miR-302–367 and miR99/100 families), and fibrosis (as miR-125b). Consistently with these roles of miRNAs, pharmacological intervention using anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (antagomirs or LNA-anti-miRs) has been shown to improve cardiac contractility and mitigate fibrosis, alleviating cardiac dysfunction in the setting of heart failure.
miRNAs are crucial regulators of cardiac phenotype and have enthused both basic scientists and clinicians alike. With advancement of technology and better understanding of mechanisms governing miRNA deregulation, we are at the crossroads for deciphering miRNA function and modulating it for therapeutics.
Center for Cardiovascular Genetics, Houston, Texas, USA
Correspondence to Priyatansh Gurha, PhD, Center for Cardiovascular Genetics, 6770 Bertner Street, Suite C905, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Tel: +1 713 500 2335; e-mail: Priyatansh.email@example.com