Purpose of review
Recognizing the relevance of sodium balance in heart failure, it has been presumed that patients with heart failure benefit from a low-sodium diet
, though its efficacy and safety are unclear. The purpose of this review is to provide insight into the currently available evidence base for the effects of dietary sodium restriction
in patients with chronic heart failure.
There has been an increasing body of evidence on the effects of sodium restriction
in heart failure; however, both observational and experimental studies have shown mixed results. Recent randomized controlled trial data has even suggested that sodium restriction
may have detrimental effects in patients with heart failure. Only a few randomized controlled trials have included clinical outcomes as a primary endpoint. These have been either unpowered to test the association between reduced sodium intake and outcomes, or conducted in the context of an aggressive diuretic treatment and fluid restriction.
The effects of a low-sodium diet
on clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure remain unclear. Ongoing research into the effects of lowering sodium for patients with chronic or acute heart failure will shed light on the importance of holistic self-care and dietary strategies in heart failure.