MORBID OBESITY AND SLEEP APNEA: Edited by Frances F. ChungAnticipated and unanticipated difficult airway managementXu, Zepinga; Ma, Wuhuab; Hester, Douglas L.c; Jiang, Yandongc Author Information aDepartment of Anesthesiology, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Nanjing bDepartment of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China cDepartment of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA Correspondence to Yandong Jiang, MD, PhD, Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1301 Medical Center Drive, 4648 TVC, Nashville, TN 37232-5614, USA. Tel: +1 615 343 9419; fax: +1 615 936 6493; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology: February 2018 - Volume 31 - Issue 1 - p 96-103 doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000540 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Management of difficult airway is far from optimal despite of continuous progress in science and technology. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current research in the field and bring readers up to date. Recent findings New technologies for intubation make providers more confident to handle difficult airways, but there is lack of evidence indicating the reduction in incidence of ‘cannot intubate cannot ventilate (CICV)’. Optimization of mask ventilation should reduce the incidence of difficult mask ventilation but it is greatly underappreciated. Even optimization of preoxygenation is not directly associated with any decreased incidence of difficult airway, but it prolongs time of safe apnea oxygenation; therefore, is likely to improve the outcome of the patients if CICV occurs. Summary Improvement of managing difficult airway relies on optimized mask ventilation, utilization of the appropriate tools for intubation, maximization of the safe apnea oxygenation time, prompt surgical airway in response to severe hypoxia in case effective noninvasive interventions are not achievable. It seems that a simplified and concise algorithm of difficult airway management needs to be established in order to enable providers to easily remember and execute. Copyright © 2018 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.