INTENSIVE CARE AND RESUSCITATION: Edited by Marc LeoneMechanical ventilation in septic shockMaccagnan Pinheiro Besen, Bruno Adlera; Tomazini, Bruno Martinsb; Pontes Azevedo, Luciano Cesara,bAuthor Information aMedical Intensive Care Unit, Disciplina de Emergências Clínicas, Hospital das Clínicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo bHospital Sírio Libanês, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Correspondence to Luciano Cesar Pontes Azevedo, Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Rua Prof. Daher Cutait, 69, São Paulo 01308 060, Brazil. Tel: +55 (11) 3394 5739; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology: April 2021 - Volume 34 - Issue 2 - p 107-112 doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000955 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The aim of this study was to review the most recent literature on mechanical ventilation strategies in patients with septic shock. Recent findings Indirect clinical trial evidence has refined the use of neuromuscular blocking agents, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment manoeuvres in septic shock patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Weaning strategies and devices have also been recently evaluated. The role of lung protective ventilation in patients with healthy lungs, while recognized, still needs to be further refined. The possible detrimental effects of spontaneous breathing in patients who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome is increasingly recognized, but clinical trial evidence is still lacking to confirm this hypothesis. A new concept of lung and diaphragm protective is emerging in the critical care literature, but its application will need a complex intervention implementation approach to allow adequate scrutiny of this concept and uptake by clinicians. Summary Many advances in the management of the mechanically ventilated patient with sepsis and septic shock have occurred in recent years, but clinical trial evidence is still necessary to translate new hypotheses to the bedside and find the right balance between benefits and risks of these new strategies. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.