DRUGS IN ANESTHESIA: Edited by Eberhard F. KochsThe role of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in clinical anaesthesia practiceHannivoort, Laura N.a; Absalom, Anthony R.a; Struys, Michel M.R.F.a,bAuthor Information aDepartment of Anesthesiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands bDepartment of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Correspondence to Laura N. Hannivoort, MD, PhD, Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 50 361 1002; fax: +31 50 3613763; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology: August 2020 - Volume 33 - Issue 4 - p 483-489 doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000881 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Growing concerns about the environmental effects of volatile anaesthetics are likely to lead to increased use of intravenous anaesthetic drugs. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) models can increase the accuracy of intravenous drug titration, especially in populations that differ from the ‘average.’ However, with a growing number of PKPD models, and other technology available to date, it can be hard to see the wood for the trees. This review attempts to guide the reader through the PKPD jungle. Recent findings General purpose PKPD models for propofol and remifentanil designed to apply to a broader population, including children, the elderly and the obese, reduce the need for population-specific models. PKPD models for drugs such as dexmedetomidine and antimicrobial agents may be useful for procedural sedation or in the ICU. Technological advances such as Bayesian model adjustment based on point-of-care plasma concentration measurements, closed-loop drug delivery and artificial intelligence may improve the ease of use of the anaesthetic drugs and increase the accuracy of titration. Summary Newer and more complex modelling techniques and technological advancements can help to deliver anaesthetic drugs, sedatives and other drugs in a more stable and thereby safer way. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.