Purpose of review
Hemodynamic instability is common in the perioperative period because of obligate physiologic changes that occur with surgery. Despite the frequency of such hemodynamic changes and the potential harm associated with them, particularly in the elderly, guidelines to optimize perioperative blood pressure are lacking. The present review examines recent evidence for perioperative blood pressure management in the elderly.
Hypotension has been associated with poor outcomes, particularly renal injury, myocardial injury, and increased mortality, in the perioperative period. Hypertension, tachycardia, frequency of blood pressure monitoring, and management of chronic antihypertensive medications may also affect patient outcomes. Elderly patients may be especially prone to adverse events associated with perioperative hemodynamic instability.
Precise and intentional management of hemodynamic parameters, medication regimens, and blood pressure monitoring may reduce adverse events in elderly patients undergoing surgery. Further investigation is required to identify the exact hemodynamic parameters that mitigate risk.