Echo-guided invasive pain therapy indications and limitationsHoydonckx, Yasmine; Peng, PhilipCurrent Opinion in Anesthesiology: December 2018 - Volume 31 - Issue 6 - p 739–748 doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000656 TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND SAFETY: Edited by Stephan A. Loer Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Purpose of review The purposes of this review are to summarize the advantages and limitations of ultrasound-guided pain interventions, and to illustrate those interventions with peripheral, axial and musculoskeletal pain procedures. Recent findings With the capability of locating the interfascial plane, ultrasonography has led to the emergence of a series of plane blocks for the thoracoabdominal region in the recent decade. Ultrasonography for musculoskeletal procedures has been of growing interest because of the major advantage of direct visualization and scanning of various soft tissues and real-time spread in the injectate, thereby enhancing precision and efficacy, reducing risk of trauma and avoidance of radiation. For spine and intra-articular structures, ultrasonography is complicated by the bony shadow artefact and often deep location of the structure, making acquisition of ultrasound image challenging. Despite these difficulties, there is growing interest in applying ultrasonography for cervical spine and sacroiliac joint procedures. Summary Pain intervention under ultrasound guidance is particularly valuable in peripheral and musculoskeletal procedures. There is growing interest of its application in cervical spine and sacroiliac joint. More outcome studies are required in the future to make ultrasound-guided pain intervention as the established procedure. Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, University of Toronto, University Health Network-Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Correspondence to Philip Peng, MBBS, FRCPC, Founder (Pain Medicine), Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, University of Toronto, University Health Network-Toronto Western Hospital, McL 2-405, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5T 2S8. Tel: +1 416 603 5118; fax: +1 416 603 6494; e-mail: Philip.firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright © 2018 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.