PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA: Edited by Lynne R. FerrariPediatric sleep-disordered breathing an update on diagnostic testingMcGrath, Brian; Lerman, Jerrold Author Information Department of Anesthesia, Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA Correspondence to Jerrold Lerman, Department of Anesthesia, Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, 219 Bryant St, Buffalo, NY 14222, USA. Tel: +1 716 878 7701; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology: June 2017 - Volume 30 - Issue 3 - p 357-361 doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000458 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Recent advances in diagnostic testing for obstructive sleep apnea in children have refined the standard tests while identifying several new tools that hold promise to radically change how we diagnose sleep apnea. Recent findings Studies have demonstrated that the polysomnogram may be modified to permit home assessment of sleep disturbed breathing in children to ensure more widespread access to the test. Alternately, questionnaires, nocturnal oximetry, and diagnostic urinary biomarkers have shown great promise as both sensitive and specific tools to diagnose sleep apnea in children as well as track the severity of the disease. Summary The gold standard polysomnogram has been refined to permit its application in a modified form at home and for brief examinations in children. This standard has been challenged on several fronts, including questionnaires, nocturnal oximetry, drug-induced sleep endoscopy, and noninvasive urinary biomarkers that may ultimately supplant polysomnography as the gold standard to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children. Copyright © 2017 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.