CARDIOVASCULAR ANESTHESIA: Edited by Alexander ZarbockDiastolic heart failure diagnosis and therapyNicoara, Alina; Jones-Haywood, Mandisa Author Information Division of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA Correspondence to Alina Nicoara, MD, FASE, Division of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3094/5691F HAFS, Erwin Rd Durham, NC 27710, USA. Tel: +1 919 681 0862; fax: +1 919 681 8994; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology: February 2016 - Volume 29 - Issue 1 - p 61-67 doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000276 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This article focuses on the recent findings in the diagnosis and treatment of diastolic heart failure (DHF) or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Recent findings DHF has become the most common form of heart failure in the population. Although diastolic dysfunction still plays a central role, it is now understood that DHF is a very complex clinical entity with heterogeneous pathophysiology and significant contribution from extracardiac comorbidities. Alterations in ventricular-arterial coupling play a significant role in the impaired hemodynamic response to exercise seen in these patients. The absence of diastolic dysfunction at rest does not exclude the diagnosis of DHF. There has been little to no progress made in identifying evidence-based, effective, and specific treatments for patients with DHF. This may be because of the pathophysiological heterogeneity, incomplete understanding of DHF, and heterogeneity of patients included in clinical trials with variable inclusion criteria. Summary The understanding of the phenotypic heterogeneity and multifactorial pathophysiology of DHF may lead to novel therapeutic targets in the future. Currently, the key to the treatment of DHF is aggressive management of contributing factors. Copyright © 2016 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.