Purpose of review
Preparation for and induction of anesthesia in children has evolved significantly over the last decade, with particular reference to the reduction of perioperative anxiety reduction by nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic means. Several new large population studies and meta-analyses further scrutinize the current techniques.
Many nonpharmacologic methods to reduce anxiety are effective λU similar to sedative premedications, with the exception of parent present induction of anesthesia. Healthcare providers can be taught to increase anxiety-reducing behaviors through an educational intervention. Clonidine and dexmedetomidine have many similar or superior qualities to midazolam.
Larger studies still need to be conducted before wide-scale application of many nonpharmalogical interventions such as parental acupuncture. Similarly, more investigation should be done on outcomes such as onset, emergence, and discharge times, as well as the postoperative response with reference to emergence delirium and postoperative nausea and vomiting prevention to outline the differences among sedative premedications such as midazolam, clonidine, and dexmedetomidine.