Purpose of review
This review aims to report all the recent studies that are implicated in DNA methylation analysis in the field of allergy and to underline the complexity of the study methodologies and results.
Although the growing number of DNA methylation studies have yet to point to a specific mechanism, herein we provide an overview of the majority of pathways considered to be implicated and highlight particular genes, like KNH2, ATPAF2 and ZNF385A, for their potential as biomarkers.
The epigenetic profile of respiratory allergic diseases, and particularly DNA methylation, has been investigated in various populations, so as to gain a better understanding of its role in pathogenesis. Through our analysis, multiple links are presented between differential DNA methylation loci and IgE sensitization, lung functionality and severity of the disease. Additionally, associations of this epigenetic change with maternal asthma, age, sex and environmental factors are described, thus uncovering specific gene families that, after further examination could be used as methylation biomarkers in cases of allergic disease.