EYE ALLERGY: Edited by Leonard Bielory and Abraham SolomonNeurostimulation for dry eye diseaseErdinest, Nira; Pincovich, Shirleyb; London, Naomic; Solomon, Abrahama Author Information aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem bRambam Health Care Campus, Haifa cPrivate Practice, Jerusalem, Israel Correspondence to Abraham Solomon, MD, Cornea & Refractive Surgery Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem 91120, Israel. Tel: +972 507874664; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 22(5):p 328-334, October 2022. | DOI: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000841 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To review the neuroanatomy and physiology of the basal and reflex tearing and present the available and developing therapies using the concept of neurostimulation in dry eye disease (DED). Recent findings The most prevalent current DED treatments seek to supplement low tear volume and tear components or reduce inflammation. Neurostimulation is a unique approach gaining momentum in recent years, geared toward increasing the production of all basal tear components by stimulating the nerves responsible for producing the various tear components. The neuroanatomy of the lacrimal unit provides several possible access points to stimulate tear production through two arms of the sensory trigeminal nerves. Modes of stimulation include chemical or energy in electrical or magnetic form. Research thus far has shown that neurostimulation can achieve lacrimal, goblet cell, and meibomian gland stimulation. Subjectively it improves symptoms of DED. Clinically, neurostimulation has improved the signs and symptoms of DED by increasing basal tear production and tear volume. Summary Neurostimulation using electrical, mechanical, or chemical means is a novel concept to increase tear production and was demonstrated to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated method for managing DED. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.