FOOD ALLERGY: Edited by Alessandro Fiocchi and Motohiro EbisawaMicrobiota in non-IgE-mediated food allergyMennini, Maurizioa; Fierro, Vincenzoa; Di Nardo, Giovannib; Pecora, Valentinaa; Fiocchi, AlessandroaAuthor Information aDivision of Allergy, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital IRCCS bNESMOS Department, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Sant’Andrea University Hospital, Rome, Italy Correspondence to Maurizio Mennini, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù – Piazza di Sant’Onofrio, 4, 00165 Rome, Italy. Tel: +39 0668592296; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology: June 2020 - Volume 20 - Issue 3 - p 323-328 doi: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000644 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To perform a nonsystematic review of the literature on the microbiota in the different types of non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Recent findings The commonest non-IgE-mediated disorders managed by allergists include: eosinophilic esophagitis, food protein-induced enteropathy, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, and food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis. The review of the literature describes how at phylum level we observe an increase of Proteobacteria in eosinophilic esophagitis esophageal microbiota and in food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, and food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis gut microbiota, while we observe an increase of Bacteroidetes in healthy controls. Several studies endorse the concept that a bloom of Proteobacteria in the gut reflects dysbiosis or an unstable gut microbial community structure. In several studies, the type of diet, the use of probiotics and in a single experience the use of fecal microbiota transplantation has produced significant variations of the microbiota. Summary Genetic factors alone cannot account for the rapid rise in food allergy prevalence and the microbiome might be contributing to allergy risk. Our review showed that common features of the pathological microbiota among different types of non-IgE-mediated food allergy can be identified. These evidences suggest a possible role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis and non-IgE-mediated food allergies and the need to understand the effects of its modulation on the disorders themselves. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.