Purpose of review
Immune system modulators have been under investigation to help elucidate the underlying pathophysiologies of chronic rhinosinusitis
(S100A7) and calgranulins
(S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12) are S100 proteins
that have been studied for their immune-mediating responses to pathogens within the context of CRS. This review highlights the expression patterns and proposed roles of S100 proteins
in CRS with (CRSwNP) and without (CRSsNP) nasal polyps.
Elevated levels of S100A7 and S100A12 were measured in the sinonasal tissues of patients with CRSsNP compared with CRSwNP and controls. S100A12 expression in CRSsNP was significantly correlated to disease severity. Contrastingly, increased S100A8, S100A9, and S100A8/A9 levels were demonstrated in the nasal polyp tissues of patients with CRSwNP compared with those in inferior turbinate and uncinate tissues of patients with CRSsNP and controls.
The reported differential expression patterns and activities of psoriasin
suggest that S100 proteins
exert unique and concerted roles in mediating immunity in different subtypes of CRS. These studies will enable further investigations focused on understanding the immune-modulating mechanisms of S100 proteins
in different inflammatory signaling pathways and disease phenotypes of CRS toward the pursuit of identifying new biomarkers and targets for improved outcomes.