Vitamin D and childhood asthma causation and contribution to disease activityLitonjua, Augusto A.Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology: April 2019 - Volume 19 - Issue 2 - p 126–131 doi: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000509 PEDIATRIC ASTHMA AND DEVELOPMENT OF ATOPY: Edited by Leonard B. Bacharier and John Oppenheimer Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Purpose of review To review the literature of the past 18 months (April 2017 through September, 2018) relating to vitamin D and childhood asthma. Recent findings A combined analysis of two clinical trials of maternal vitamin D supplementation trials showed a significant protective effect of vitamin D supplementation trials in the primary prevention of asthma and recurrent wheeze up to age 3 years. Secondary analyses from these trials have also suggested that initial maternal vitamin D status could affect the response to supplementation during pregnancy, with the biggest protective effect in children born to mothers with initial 25hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels of at least 30 ng/ml. A postnatal, 6-month vitamin D supplementation trial in black, premature babies showed a 34% decreased risk of recurrent wheezing at 1 year among the infants who received supplementation. An individual patient data meta-analysis of published clinical trials concluded that vitamin D supplementation decreased the risk of asthma exacerbations in those with 25OHD levels less than 10 ng/ml. Results of observational analyses on primary prevention of asthma and in prevention of exacerbations remain mixed, with the bulk of the evidence suggesting that there is a protective effect of higher vitamin D levels. Summary Evidence continues to accumulate that vitamin D supplementation helps to prevent the development of asthma and recurrent wheeze in early life, and may also help in the management of asthma. The level(s) of circulating vitamin D that maximizes these effects remains to be identified. Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA Correspondence to Augusto A. Litonjua, MD, MPH, Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. Tel: +1 585 275 6544; e-mail: email@example.com Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.