Secondary Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

How guideline can shape clinical practice globally

the diagnosis and rationale for action against cow's milk allergy experience

Dahdah, Lamia; Arasi, Stefania; Valluzzi, Rocco Luigi; Fierro, Vincenzo; Fiocchi, Alessandro

Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology: April 2019 - Volume 19 - Issue 2 - p 185–191
doi: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000513
GENETICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: Edited by Isabella Annesi-Maesano and Antonella Cianferoni

Purpose of review Allergic diseases are increasing worldwide and are considered an important public health problem causing severe and even life-threatening reactions. The creation of guidelines aims to help clinicians improving the quality of diagnosis and management of such diseases. Clinical practice guidelines alone are not sufficient and there is a need for implementation strategies for their introduction into daily practice. We report here the main international allergy guidelines with a more focused look on the Diagnosis and Rationale for Action against Cow's Milk Allergy (DRACMA) guidelines and their effect on clinical practice.

Recent findings DRACMA guidelines have clearly modified the approach to cow's milk allergy (CMA) from its diagnosis to treatment tailoring the choices for each patient. Although they strongly recommend oral food challenge for diagnosing CMA, they also indicate that it may not be necessary in many cases with the introduction of the pretest probability of CMA. Studies on the implementation of DRACMA guidelines show how they influenced the formula market, making appropriate treatments more affordable.

Summary DRACMA reconciled international differences in the diagnosis and management of CMA. They introduced the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology in the field of food allergy and highlighted the importance for meta-analyses to be able to adapt recommendations to the local context.

Division of Allergy, University Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hospital Bambino Gesù, Rome, Vatican City

Correspondence to Alessandro Fiocchi, MD, Division of Allergy, University Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hospital Bambino Gesù, Rome, Vatican City. Tel: +39 06 6859 4777; e-mail:

Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.