The indoor environment and its effects on childhood asthmaAhluwalia, Sharon K; Matsui, Elizabeth CCurrent Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology: April 2011 - Volume 11 - Issue 2 - p 137–143 doi: 10.1097/ACI.0b013e3283445921 Pediatric asthma and development of atopy: Edited by Carlos E. Baena-Cagnani and Leonard B. Bacharier Abstract Author Information Purpose of review Indoor pollutants and allergens cause asthma symptoms and exacerbations and influence the risk of developing asthma. We review recent studies regarding the effects of the indoor environment on childhood asthma. Recent findings Exposure to some indoor allergens and second hand smoke are causally related to the development of asthma in children. Many recent studies have demonstrated an association between exposure to indoor pollutants and allergens and airways inflammation, asthma symptoms, and increased healthcare utilization among individuals with established asthma. Genetic polymorphisms conferring susceptibility to some indoor exposures have also been identified, and recent findings support the notion that environmental exposures may influence gene expression through epigenetic modification. Recent studies also support the efficacy of multifaceted environmental interventions in childhood asthma. Summary Studies have provided significant evidence of the association between many indoor pollutants and allergens and asthma morbidity, and have also demonstrated the efficacy of multifaceted indoor environmental interventions in childhood asthma. There is also a growing body of evidence suggesting that some indoor pollutants and allergens may increase the risk of developing asthma. Future studies should examine mechanisms whereby environmental exposures may influence asthma pathogenesis and expand the current knowledge of susceptibility factors for indoor exposures. Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Correspondence to Elizabeth C. Matsui, MD, MHS, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, CMSC 1102, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA Tel: +1 410 955 5883; fax: +1 410 955 0229; e-mail: email@example.com Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.