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Flavoring-related bronchiolitis obliterans

Kreiss, Kathleen

Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology: April 2007 - Volume 7 - Issue 2 - p 162–167
doi: 10.1097/ACI.0b013e3280298235
Occupational disease

Purpose of review In 2000, inhalation of butter flavoring vapors was first associated with clinical bronchiolitis obliterans among workers in microwave popcorn production. Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies in the succeeding 5 years have intervention and research implications.

Recent findings Irreversible obstructive disease exists in workers throughout the microwave popcorn industry, in flavoring manufacture, and in the chemical synthesis of diacetyl, a predominant chemical in butter flavoring. Biologic plausibility of the role of diacetyl and other components of butter flavoring in causing bronchiolitis obliterans exists in rodent experiments which demonstrate respiratory epithelial necrosis. Some risky jobs were associated with short-term peak flavoring exposures, and average 8-h diacetyl exposures as low as 0.02 parts per million were measured in a work area where disease occurred in workers mixing butter flavorings with heated oil.

Summary Until safe levels of flavoring chemicals are determined, prevention requires substitution, engineering controls, improved work practices, and personal protective equipment to lower exposure, in conjunction with medical surveillance for accelerated declines in pulmonary function. An epidemiologic approach to longitudinal medical surveillance and flavoring chemical exposures, paired with inhalation toxicology studies of flavoring components, will lay the basis for determining health-protective exposure limits for various flavoring chemicals.

Field Studies Branch, Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA

Correspondence to Kathleen Kreiss, MD, NIOSH/DRDS Suite H-2800, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown WV 26505, USA Tel: +1 304 285 5800; fax: +1 304 285 5820; e-mail:

This work expresses the opinions of the author; the findings and conclusions in this review have not been formally disseminated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and should not be construed to represent any agency determination or policy.

Copyright © 2007 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.