Chinese Medical Journal
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are anuclear particles composed of lipid bilayers that contain nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and organelles. EVs act as an important mediator of cell-to-cell communication. Under physiological conditions, EVs play an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis of the pulmonary milieu, but they can also be involved in promoting the pathogenesis and progression of various respiratory diseases. In addition, EVs derived from mesenchymal stem cells have shown promising therapeutic effects on reducing and repairing lung injuries. Furthermore, researchers have explored different methods for modifying EVs or enhancing EVs-mediated drug delivery to produce more targeted and beneficial effects. This article reviewed the characteristics and biogenesis of EVs and their role in lung homeostasis and various acute and chronic lung diseases and the potential therapeutic application of EVs in the field of clinical medicine.